Practically Speaking

by
Edition: 4th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2022-11-15
Publisher(s): Oxford University Press
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Summary

Widely praised for its conversational tone and clear advice, Practically Speaking is the public speaking textbook your students will actually read. Filled with engaging stories and examples, sound scholarship and recent research, and useful tips and tricks, Practically Speaking shows students how to get started, practice thinking critically, and ultimately develop their own voice. Practically Speaking is a winner of the Textbook & Academic Authors Association's Textbook Excellence Award.

Instructors may find course preparation tools and more details on our robust digital offerings at www.oup.com/he/rothwell-ps4e.

Author Biography


J. Dan Rothwell is the former chair of the Communication Studies Department at Cabrillo College. He has a BA in American history from the University of Portland (Oregon), an MA in rhetoric and public address, and a PhD in communication theory and social influence, both from the University of Oregon. He has authored five other books in addition to Practically Speaking and has received more than two dozen teaching awards during his lengthy academic career.

Table of Contents


Brief Contents
Preface
1. Communication Competence and Public Speaking
2. Speech Anxiety
3. Audience Analysis and Topic Selection
4. Gathering Material
5. Using Supporting Materials Effectively
6. Attention: Getting People to Listen
7. Introductions and Conclusions
8. Outlining and Organizing Speeches
9. Speaking Style: Using Language
10. Delivering Your Speech
11. Visual Aids
12. Skepticism: Becoming Critical Thinking Speakers and Listeners
13. Argument, Reasoning, and Evidence
14. Informative Speaking
15. Foundations of Persuasive Speaking
16. Persuasive Speaking Strategies
17. Speeches for Special Occasions
18. Virtual Public Speaking
APPENDIX A. Text of an Informative Speech: "The Annual Plague"
APPENDIX B. Text of a Persuasive Speech: "Get Big Money Out of College Sports"
APPENDIX C. Group Oral Presentations
Glossary
References
Credits
Index

Preface
Chapter 1. Communication Competence and Public Speaking
DEFINING COMMUNICATION
Communication as a Transactional Process: Working with an Audience
Communication as Sharing Meaning: Making Sense
COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE IN PUBLIC SPEAKING
Effectiveness: Achieving Goals
--Degrees of Effectiveness: From Deficiency to Proficiency
--Audience Orientation: You Are Not Talking to Yourself
Appropriateness: Speaking by the Rules
ACHIEVING COMPETENT PUBLIC SPEAKING
Knowledge: Learning the Rules
Skills: Showing, Not Just Knowing
Sensitivity: Developing Receptive Accuracy
Commitment: Acquiring a Passion for Excellence
Ethics: Determining the Right and Wrong of Speaking
--Ethical Standards: Judging Moral Correctness of Speech
--Plagiarism: Never Inconsequential
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 2. Speech Anxiety
SPEECH ANXIETY AS A CHALLENGE
Pervasiveness of Speech Anxiety: A Common Experience
Intensity of Speech Anxiety: Fate Worse than Death?
--[Box Feature] First Speech: Sample Narrative Speech of Introduction on Speech Anxiety
SYMPTOMS: FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT RESPONSE
Basic Symptoms: Your Body's Response to Threat
Appropriateness of Symptoms: Relevance to Public Speaking
CAUSES OF DYSFUNCTIONAL ANXIETY
Self-Defeating Thoughts: Sabotaging Your Speech
--Catastrophic Thinking: Fear of Failure
--Perfectionist Thinking: No Mistakes Permitted
--The Illusion of Transparency: Being Nervous about Looking Nervous
--Desire for Complete Approval: Trying Not to Offend
Anxiety-Provoking Situations: Considering Context
--Novelty of the Speaking Situation: Uncertainty
--Conspicuousness: The Spotlight Effect
--Types of Speeches: Varying Responses
STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING SPEECH ANXIETY
Prepare and Practice: Transforming Novelty into Familiarity
Gain Realistic Perspective: Rational Not Irrational Thinking
--Four Phases of Speech Anxiety
--Rational versus Irrational Anxiety
RATIONAL SPEECH ANXIETY
Adopt a Noncompetitive Communication Orientation: Reframing
Use Coping Statements: Rational Reappraisal
Use Positive Imaging: Visualizing Success
Use Relaxation Techniques: Reducing Fight-or-Flight Response
Try Systematic Desensitization: Incremental Relaxation
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 3. Audience Analysis and Topic Selection
TYPES OF AUDIENCES
Captive Audience: Disengaged Listeners
Committed Audience: Agreeable Listeners
Contrary Audience: Hostile Listeners
Concerned Audience: Eager Listeners
Casual Audience: Unexpected Listeners
AUDIENCE COMPOSITION
Age: Possible Generation Gaps
Gender: Go Beyond Simplistic Stereotypes
Ethnicity and Culture: Sensitivity to Diversity
Group Affiliations: A Window into Listeners' Views
AUDIENCE ADAPTATION
Establish Identification: Connecting with Your Audience
--Likability: I Can Relate to You
--Stylistic Similarity: Looking and Acting the Part
--Substantive Similarity: Establishing Common Ground
Build Credibility: Establishing Believability
--Competence: Knowledge and Experience
--Trustworthiness: Truthfulness
--Dynamism: Display Energy
--Composure: Stay in Control
Adapt to the Situation: Influence of Circumstances
Adapt While Speaking: Exhibit Sensitivity
TOPIC CHOICE AND AUDIENCE ADAPTATION
Exploring Potential Topics: Important Choice
--Do a Personal Inventory: You as Topic Source
--Brainstorm: New Possibilities
--Crowdsourcing for Topics: Group Wisdom
--Scanning for Topics: Quick Ideas
Appropriateness of Topic: Blending Topic and Audience
--Speaker Appropriateness: Suitability for You
--Audience Appropriateness: Suitability for Your Listeners
--Occasion Appropriateness: Suitability for the Event
Narrowing the Topic: Making Subjects Manageable
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 4. Gathering Material
THE INTERNET: ONLINE RESEARCH
Search Engines
Virtual Libraries
Government Sites
Survey Sites
Wikipedia: Credible Scholarship or Mob Rule?
News and Blogging Sites: Be Very Choosy
Famous Quotation Sites: The Wisdom of Others
Evaluating Internet Information: Basic Steps
LIBRARIES: BRICKS-AND-MORTAR RESEARCH FACILITIES
Librarian: Expert Navigator
Library Catalogues: Computer Versions
Periodicals: Popular Information Sources
Newspapers: An Old Standby
Reference Works: Beyond Wikipedia
Databases: Computerized Collections of Credible Information
INTERVIEWING: QUESTIONING EXPERTS
Interview Plan: Be Prepared
Interview Conduct: Act Appropriately
Interviewing by Email: Surprise Yourself
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 5. Using Supporting Materials Effectively
USING EXAMPLES COMPETENTLY
Types of Examples: Specific Illustrations
--Hypothetical Examples: It Could Happen
--Real Examples: It Did Happen
--Brief Examples: Short and to the Point
--Extended Examples: Telling a Story
Using Examples Effectively: Choose Carefully
--Choose Vivid Examples: Create Images
--Use Representative Examples: Reflect What Is Accurate
--Stack Examples: When One Is Not Enough
USING STATISTICS COMPETENTLY
Choose Statistics for Effect: Beyond Numbing Numbers
Use Accurate Statistics Accurately: No Distorting
Make Statistics Concrete: Meaningful Numbers
Make Statistical Comparisons: Gaining Perspective
Use Credible Sources: Build Believability
Stack Statistics: Creating Impact
Use Statistics Sparingly: Don't Overwhelm Your Listeners
Use Visual Aids: Clarify Statistical Trends and Analysis
USING TESTIMONY COMPETENTLY
Types of Testimony: Relying on Others
--Testimony of Experts: Relying on Those in the Know
--Eyewitness Testimony: You Had to Be There
--Testimony of Non-Experts: Ordinary Folks Adding Color to Events
How to Use Testimony Effectively
--Quote or Paraphrase Accurately: Consider Context
--Use Qualified Sources: Credibility Matters
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ACROSS TYPES
Choose Interesting Supporting Materials: Counteracting Boredom
Be Aware of Source Bias: Choose Carefully
Cite Sources Completely: No Vague References
Abbreviate Repetitive Source Citations: Oral Reference Reminders
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 6. Attention: Getting People to Listen
NATURE OF ATTENTION: A TRANSACTIONAL PROCESS
Selective Attention of Listeners: Filtering Stimuli
How to Be a Mindful Listener: Assisting the Speaker
SPEAKER'S ATTENTION STRATEGIES: TRIGGERING LISTENING
The Vital Appeal: Meaningfulness
Novelty: The Allure of the New
--Unusual Topics: Choosing Outside the Box
--Unusual Examples: The Anti-Sedative
--Unusual Stories: Compelling Attention
--Unusual Phrasing: Wording Matters
--Unusual Presentation: Song and Dance
Humorous Appeal: Keep Listeners Laughing
--Do Not Force Humor: Not Everyone Is Funny
--Use Only Relevant Humor: Stay Focused
--Be Sensitive to Audience and Occasion: Humor Can Backfire
--Consider Using Self-Deprecating Humor: "I'm Not Worthy"
Startling Appeal: Shake Up Your Listeners
--Startling Statements, Facts, or Statistics: The "Oh WOW" Effect
--Inappropriate Use: Beware Bizarre Behavior
Movement and Change: Our Evolutionary Protection
Intensity: Extreme Degree of a Stimulus
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 7. Introductions and Conclusions
OBJECTIVES FOR COMPETENT INTRODUCTIONS
Gain Attention: Focusing Your Listeners
--Begin with a Clever Quotation: Let Others Grab Attention
--Startle Your Audience: Surprise Opener
--Use Questions: Engage Your Listeners
--Tell a Relevant Story: Use Narrative Power
--Begin with a Simple Visual Aid: Show and Tell
--Refer to Remarks of Introduction: Acknowledging Praise
Make a Clear Purpose Statement: Providing Intent
Establish Topic Significance: Making Your Listeners Care
Establish Your Credibility: Why Listeners Should Believe You
Preview the Main Points: The Coming Attractions
OBJECTIVES FOR COMPETENT CONCLUSIONS
Summarize the Main Points: Connecting the Dots
Refer to the Introduction: Bookending Your Speech
Make a Memorable Finish: Sizzle, Don't Fizzle
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 8. Outlining and Organizing Speeches
EFFECTIVE OUTLINING
Standard Formatting: Using Correct Symbols
Division: Dividing the Pie
Coherence: Logical Consistency and Clarity
Completeness: Using Full Sentences
Balance: No Lopsided Time Allotment
[Box Feature] A Student Outline: Rough Draft and Revision
EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION: CREATING PATTERNS
Topical Pattern: By the Subjects
Chronological Pattern: According to Time
Spatial Pattern: Visualization
Causal Pattern: Who or What Is Responsible
Problem-Solution Pattern: Meeting Needs
Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern: Knowing Why and How
Comparative Advantages Pattern: Who or What Is Better
Monroe's Motivated Sequence: Five-Step Pattern
Narrative Pattern: Telling a Story
CONNECTING THE DOTS: ADDITIONAL TIPS
Provide Definitions
Use Signposts
Make Transitions
Use Internal Previews
Give Internal Summaries
PREPARATION VERSUS PRESENTATION OUTLINES
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 9. Speaking Style: Using Language
ORAL VERSUS WRITTEN STYLE
STYLE IN THE ELECTRONIC AGE
STANDARDS OF COMPETENT ORAL STYLE
Clarity: Concise and on Point
--Jargon: Beware Confusion
--Euphemism: Linguistic Novocaine
--Slang: Trying to Sound Cool
Precision: Picking the Apt Words
Vividness: Painting a Picture
--Metaphor and Simile: Figures of Speech
--Alliteration: Several of the Same Sounds
--Repetition: Rhythmic Cadence
--Antithesis: Using Opposites
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 10. Delivering Your Speech
METHODS OF COMPETENT DELIVERY
Manuscript Speaking: Looking for Precision
Memorized Speaking: Memory, Do Not Fail Me Now
Impromptu Speaking: Off-the-Cuff Presentations
Extemporaneous Speaking: The Virtues of an Outline
DEVELOPING COMPETENT DELIVERY
Eye Contact: Connecting with Your Audience
Voice: Developing Vocal Variety
Fluency: Avoiding Excessive Vocal Fillers
Speaking Rate: Finding the Right Pace
Articulation and Pronunciation: Striving for Clarity of Speech
Body Movements: Finding the Right Balance Nonverbally
Podium Usage: Avoiding the Lectern Lean
Microphone Usage: Amplifying Your Delivery
Distracting Behaviors: Avoiding Interference
Audience-Centered Delivery: Matching the Context
Q & A: They Have Questions, You Have Answers
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 11. Visual Aids
BENEFITS: REASONS TO USE AIDS
TYPES: MAKING APPROPRIATE CHOICES
Objects: Show and Tell
Models: Practical Representations
Graphs: Making Statistics Clear and Interesting
Maps: Making a Point Geographically
Tables: Factual and Statistical Comparisons
Photographs: Very Visual Aids
Drawings: Photo Substitutes
VISUAL AIDS MEDIA: VAST CHOICES
Chalkboard and Whiteboard: All Dinosaurs Are Not Extinct
Poster Board: Simplicity Itself
Handouts: An Old Standby
Video Excerpts: DVDs, YouTube, and Visual Power
Projection Equipment: Blowing It Up
Computer-Assisted Presentations
[Box Feature] PowerPoint: Lots of Power, Little Point?
GUIDELINES: AIDS, NOT DISTRACTIONS
Keep Aids Simple
Make Aids Visible
Make Aids Neat, Attractive, and Accurate
Do Not Block the Audience's View
Keep Aids Close to You
Put the Aid Out of Sight When Not in Use
Practice with Aids
Do Not Circulate Your Aids
Do Not Talk in the Dark
Anticipate Problems
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 12. Skepticism: Becoming Critical Thinking Speakers and Listeners
SKEPTICISM, TRUE BELIEF, AND CYNICISM
DANGERS OF TRUE BELIEF
THE PROCESS OF TRUE BELIEVING
Confirmation Bias: Searching for Support
Rationalization of Disconfirmation: Clinging to Falsehoods
Burden of Proof: Whose Obligation Is It?
SKEPTICISM PROCESS: INQUIRING MINDS WANT TO KNOW
Probability Model: Likely but Not Certain
--Possibility: Could Happen, but Do Not Bet on It
--Plausibility: Making a Logical Case
--Probability: What Are the Odds?
--Certainty: Without Exception
Skepticism and Open-Mindedness: Inquiring, Not Empty, Minds
Becoming a Skeptic: Practically Speaking
--What Speakers as Skeptics Do
--What Listeners as Skeptics Do
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 13. Argument, Reasoning, and Evidence
AN ARGUMENT: STAKING YOUR CLAIM
Syllogism: Formal Logic
Toulmin Structure of Argument: Informal Logic
CRITERIA: IS IT FACT OR FALLACY?
Credibility: Should We Believe You?
--Manufactured or Questionable Statistics: Does It Make Sense?
--Biased Sources: Grinding an Ax
--Expert Quoted Out of Field: No Generic Experts Allowed
--False Dichotomies: Either-Or Thinking
Relevance: Does It Follow?
--Ad Hominem Fallacy: Diversionary Tactic
--Ad Populum Fallacy: Arguing from Public Opinion
Sufficiency: Got Enough?
--Self-Selected Sample: Partisan Power
--Inadequate Sample: Large Margin of Error
--Hasty Generalization: Arguing from Example
--Correlation Mistaken for Causation: X Does Not Necessarily Cause Y
--False Analogy: Mixing Apples and Oranges
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 14. Informative Speaking
INFORMATIVE VERSUS PERSUASIVE SPEAKING
Noncontroversial Information: Staying Neutral
Precursor to Persuasion: No Call to Action
TYPES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECHES
Reports: Facts in Brief
Explanations: Deeper Understanding
Demonstrations: Acting Out
Narratives: Storytelling
Speeches That Compare: Balancing the Pros and Cons
COMPETENT INFORMATIVE SPEAKING GUIDELINES
Be Informative: Tell Us What We Do Not Know
Adapt to Your Audience: Topic Choice and Knowledge Base
Avoid Information Overload: Beware the Data Dump
Tell Your Story Well: Narrative Tips
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 15. Foundations of Persuasive Speaking
DEFINING PERSUASION
GOALS OF PERSUASION
Conversion: Radical Persuasion
Modification: Do Not Ask for the Moon
Maintenance: Keep 'Em Coming Back
ATTITUDE-BEHAVIOR CONSISTENCY
Direct Experience: No Secondhand Attitudes
Social Pressure: Getting Heat from Others
Effort Required: Degree of Difficulty
ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
PROPOSITIONS: FACT, VALUE, AND POLICY CLAIMS
CULTURE AND PERSUASION
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 16. Persuasive Speaking Strategies
ENHANCE THE SPEAKER: IDENTIFICATION AND CREDIBILITY
USE LOGIC AND EVIDENCE: A PERSUASIVE FOCUS
Persuasive Arguments: Quality and Quantity
Persuasive Evidence: Statistics Versus Narratives
TRY EMOTIONAL APPEALS: BEYOND LOGIC
General Emotional Appeals: Motivating Change
Fear Appeals: Are You Scared Yet?
Anger Appeals: Moderately Upset
Ethics and Persuasion: Emotional Appeals Revisited
FRAMING: USING LANGUAGE TO SHAPE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR
INDUCE COGNITIVE DISSONANCE: CREATING TENSION
USE THE CONTRAST EFFECT: MINIMIZE THE MAGNITUDE
TRIGGER PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE: CRY FREEDOM
ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: REFUTATION
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 17. Speeches for Special Occasions
TRIBUTE ADDRESSES
Toasts: Raising a Glass in Tribute
Roasts: Poking Fun with Admiration
Tribute to Colleagues: Honoring the Departing
Eulogies: Praising the Departed
INTRODUCTIONS OF FEATURED SPEAKERS
SPEECHES OF PRESENTATION
SPEECHES OF ACCEPTANCE
COMMENCEMENT ADDRESSES
AFTER-DINNER SPEECHES
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS

Chapter 18. Virtual Public Speaking
ONLINE SPEECH OPTIONS
Asynchronous: Recorded Presentations
Synchronous: Immediate but Remote Audience
Hybrid: Live and Recorded
BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF ONLINE SPEECHES
Asynchronous Speech: Anyone Out There?
Synchronous Speech: Resembling In-Person Presentations
Hybrid Speech: Doing the Splits
DEVELOPING COMPETENT ONLINE SPEECHES
Setting the Stage
Delivering the Speech
SUMMARY
TED TALKS AND YOUTUBE VIDEOS
CHECKLIST
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS
APPENDIX A. Text of an Informative Speech: "The Annual Plague"
APPENDIX B. Text of a Persuasive Speech: "Get Big Money Out of College Sports"
APPENDIX C. Group Oral Presentations
Glossary
References
Credits
Index

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