Vulnerable Populations in the United States

by ;
Edition: 3rd
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2020-10-13
Publisher(s): Wiley
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An in-depth look at disparities in health and health care, fully updated for 2021 

Vulnerable Populations in the United States, 3rd Edition provides a general framework for studying vulnerable populations and summarizes major health and health care disparities by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and health insurance coverage. This updated contains the latest statistics and figures, incorporates new information related to Healthy People 2020, analyzes the latest data and trends in health and health care disparities, and provides a detailed synthesis of recent and increasingly expansive programs and initiatives to remedy these disparities. In addition, the Third Edition offers new coverage of health care reform, the “deaths of despair” (suicide, opioids, etc.), and the global primary care initiative. 

Based on the authors' teaching and research at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, this landmark text is an important resource for students, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers for learning about vulnerable populations. The book's Web site includes instructor’s materials that may be downloaded.  

  • Gain a general understanding of health and health care disparities related to race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and health insurance coverage 
  • Access online resources including editable PowerPoint slides, video, and more 
  • Delve into the programs and initiatives designed to remedy inequalities in health and health care, including Healthy People 2020 updates 
  • Enjoy new coverage of health care reform, the “deaths of despair” (suicide, opioids, etc.), and the global primary care initiative 

End of chapter revision questions and other pedagogical features make this book a valuable learning tool for anyone studying at the advanced undergraduate or graduate levels. Additionally, it will prove useful in the field for medical professionals, social and community workers, and health educators in the public sphere. 

Author Biography

DR. LEIYU SHI is Professor of health policy and health services research in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. He is Director of Johns Hopkins Primary Care Policy Center. Dr. Shi is also well known for his extensive research on the nation's vulnerable populations, in particular community health centers that serve vulnerable populations, including their sustainability, provider recruitment and retention experiences, financial performance, experience under managed care, and quality of care. Dr. Shi is the author of eleven textbooks and over 240 scientific journal articles.

DR. GREGORY STEVENS is Professor of public health in the Department of Public Health in the Rongxiang Xu College of Health and Human Services at California State University, Los Angeles. His research focuses on health care and social policy, with an emphasis on health equity for vulnerable populations. Dr. Stevens is well known for his work on children's health and health care disparities, especially in the delivery of primary care and preventive services.

Table of Contents

Figures, Tables, Exhibits xi

Preface xv

The Authors xxi

1 A General Framework to Study Vulnerable Populations 1

Learning Objectives 1

Why Study Vulnerable Populations? 3

Models for Studying Vulnerability 7

The Vulnerability Model: A New Multilevel Conceptual Framework 15

Summary 27

Key Terms 27

Review Questions 28

Essay Questions 28

2 Community Determinants and Mechanisms Of Vulnerability 29

Learning Objectives 29

Race and Ethnicity 30

Socioeconomic Status 43

Health Insurance 68

Multiple Risk Factors 81

Summary 86

Key Terms 86

Review Questions 87

Essay Questions 87

3 Influence of Individual Risk Factors 88

Learning Objectives 88

Racial and Ethnic Disparities 89

Health Care Access 89

Health Care Quality 93

Health Status 97

Socioeconomic Status Disparities 103

Health Care Access 104

Health Care Quality 105

Health Status 108

Health Insurance Disparities 114

Health Care Access 114

Health Care Quality 116

Health Status 119

Summary 123

Key Terms 123

Review Questions 123

Essay Question 123

4 Influence of Multiple Risk Factors 124

Learning Objectives 124

Health Care Access 128

Quality of Health Care 135

Health Status 144

Summary 155

Key Terms 155

Review Questions 156

Essay Questions 156

5 Current Strategies to Serve Vulnerable Populations 157

Learning Objectives 157

Programs to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Disparities 161

Programs to Eliminate Socioeconomic Disparities 176

Programs to Eliminate Disparities by Health Insurance 186

Summary 194

Key Terms 195

Review Questions 196

Essay Questions 196

6 Resolving Disparities in the United States 197

Learning Objectives 197

The Healthy People Initiative 198

Framework to Resolve Disparities 205

Resolving Disparities in Health and Health Care 210

Integrative Approaches to Resolving Disparities 227

Challenges and Barriers in Implementing the Strategies 236

Course of Action for Resolving Disparities 241

Summary 251

Key Terms 251

Review Questions 251

Essay Questions 251

References 253

Index 281

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