Understanding Emotions [Rental Edition]

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Edition: 4th
Format: Hardcover
Pub. Date: 2018-12-06
Publisher(s): Wiley Rental
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Table of Contents

Figures xvii

Tables xxv

Preface xxvii

Acknowledgments xxxi

Part I Perspectives on Emotions 1

1 Approaches to Understanding Emotions 3

Introduction 4

What Is an Emotion? First Ideas 5

Nineteenth-Century Founders 6

Charles Darwin: The Evolutionary Approach 6

William James: The Bodily Approach 10

Sigmund Freud: The Psychoanalytic Approach 10

Philosophical and Literary Approaches 12

Aristotle and the Ethics of Emotions 12

René Descartes: Philosophically Speaking 15

George Eliot: The World of the Arts 17

Brain Science Psychology Sociology and Anthropology 18

John Harlow Tania Singer: Toward a Brain Science of Emotion 19

Magda Arnold Sylvan Tomkins: New Psychological Theories 22

Erving Goffman Arlie Russell Hochschild and Lila Abu-Lughod: Emotions as Moral Dramas Involving Selves and Others 24

Empirical Inspirations for a New Science of Emotion 26

What Is an Emotion? A Framework 28

The Emotional Realm: Emotions—Moods—Dispositions 29

Episodes of Emotion 30

Moods and Sentiments 30

Emotional Disorders 30

Personality and Temperament 30

Summary 31

To Think About and Discuss 31

Further Reading 31

2 Evolution of Emotions 32

Elements of an Evolutionary Approach 33

Selection Pressures 33

Adaptation 35

Natural Design for Gene Replication 37

An Evolutionary History of Human Emotions 41

Insights from Modern Hunter-Gatherers 41

Insights from Nonhuman Primates 43

Human Ancestry 47

Evolution of Symbolic Representation and Language 49

Emotions as Bases of Human Relationships 51

Emotions That Promote Attachment 52

Emotions and Negotiation of Social Hierarchy 54

Emotions Affiliation and Friendship 54

Collective Emotion and Preference for In-Groups 55

Summary 57

To Think About and Discuss 57

Further Reading 58

3 Cultural Understandings of Emotions 59

An Island Society 60

Two Emotional Events 60

Three Principles: Emotions as Interpersonal Active and Value-based 61

Cross-cultural Approaches to Emotion 62

Identity 62

Independent and Interdependent Selves 63

Knowledge Structures 65

Values 67

The Construction of Emotions in the West 69

The Coming of Civilization to Medieval Societies 69

Has Violence Declined Over Time? 71

The Romantic Era 73

Sexual Love in the West 75

Falling in Love: Emotion as a Role 75

Women and Men: Different Cultures? 78

Integrating Evolutionary and Cultural Approaches 78

Summary 80

To Think About and Discuss 81

Further Reading 81

Part II Elements of Emotions 83

4 Communication of Emotions 85

Five Kinds of Nonverbal Behavior 88

Facial Expressions of Emotion 91

Darwin’s Observations and Theoretical Analysis 91

Early Evidence of the Universality of Facial Expressions of Emotion 93

Critiques of the Ekman and Friesen Studies 95

Discovering New Facial Expressions of Emotion 96

Inference and Context in Emotion Recognition 99

Vocal Communication of Emotion 102

The Communication of Emotions with the Voice 104

Tactile Communication of Emotion 107

Four Functions of Touch 107

Communicating Emotions with Touch 108

Emotional Expression and the Coordination of Social Interaction 109

Cultural Variation in Emotional Expression 111

Cultural Variation in Expressive Behavior 111

Cultural Variation in the Interpretation of Emotional Expression 112

Communication of Emotion in Art 113

Four Hypotheses from the Idea of Romanticism 114

Aesthetic Emotions in the Natyasastra 115

Summary 117

To Think About and Discuss 118

Further Reading 118

5 Bodily Changes and Emotions 119

Early Theorizing About Emotion and Bodily Changes 120

Emotion and the Autonomic Nervous System 122

Directed Facial Action and Physiological Differentiation of Negative Emotion 123

Autonomic Response and Positive Emotion 125

Vagal Tone and Compassion 126

The Blush 126

The Chills 128

Emotion and the Neuroendocrine System 130

The Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis 130

Emotion and the Immune System 132

The Inflammation Response 132

Bodily Changes and Emotional Experience 134

Representations of Emotions in the Body 135

Interoception 137

Embodiment Cognition and Social Interaction 138

Gut Feelings and Decision Making 140

Embodied Empathy 141

Summary 142

To Think About and Discuss 142

Further Reading 142

6 Appraisal Experience Regulation 143

Appraisal and Emotion 144

Historical Background and Concepts 144

Primary Appraisals Good and Bad 145

Which Is Stronger Good or Bad? 147

Secondary Appraisals 148

Discrete Approaches 148

Dimensional Approaches 149

Extending Appraisal Research: Tests of Theories and Patterns of Variation 152

A Third Phase of Appraisal: Verbal Sharing 154

Words and Concepts 155

The Emotion Lexicon 155

Conceptualization of Emotion 156

Emotion Metaphors 156

Prototypes 157

Variations in Emotion Lexicon 158

Emotional Experience 160

The Perspective That Emotions Are Discrete 161

The Perspective That Emotions Are Constructed 162

Comparing Perspectives 163

Regulation of Emotions 164

Distraction Reappraisal Suppression 165

Summary 168

To Think About and Discuss 168

Further Reading 168

7 Brain Mechanisms and Emotion 169

Historical Approaches to the Neuroscience of Emotion 170

Early Research on Brain Lesions and Stimulation 174

The Limbic System 174

Emotion Systems in the Mammalian Brain 175

A Framework from Affective Neuroscience 177

Emotion-Related Appraisals and Subcortical Processes in the Brain 177

Appraisals of Novelty and Concern Relevance: The Amygdala 178

Appraisals of Possible Rewards: The Nucleus Accumbens 180

Appraisals of Pain Threat and Harm: The Periaqueductal Gray 182

Bodily Awareness and Subjective Feeling: The Anterior Insular Cortex 183

From Conceptualization to Empathic Understanding: Cortical Processes in the Brain 184

Learning Associations Between Events and Rewards: The Orbitofrontal Cortex 184

Emotion Conceptualization: The Prefrontal Cortex 185

Emotion Regulation: Regions of the Prefrontal Cortex 188

Empathy and the Cortex 189

Social Pain and the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Anterior Insular Cortex 190

The Search for Emotion-Specific Patterns of Brain Activation 192

Distinct Emotions Are Constructed in the Cortex 192

Emotions Engage Discrete Patterns of Brain Activation 192

Summary 195

To Think About and Discuss 195

Further Reading 195

Part III Emotions and Social Life 197

8 Development of Emotions in Childhood 199

Theories of Emotional Development 201

Emotional Expression 202

The Developmental Emergence of Emotions 202

Social Emotions: 18 Months and Beyond 206

Developments in Language and the Understanding of Other Minds 209

Recognition of Emotions 210

Facial Expressions 211

Vocal Expressions 213

Postures and Gestures 213

Multimodal Recognition of Emotions 214

Brain Mechanisms in Infants’ Recognition of Emotions 216

The Negativity Bias 216

Regulation of Emotions 218

Regulatory Processes 219

Neurobiological Development of Emotion Regulation 220

Temperament 222

Biological Contributions to Temperament 224

Summary 227

To Think About and Discuss 227

Further Reading 227

9 Emotions in Social Relationships 228

Emotions Within Intimate Relationships 230

Principles of Sexual Love 231

Emotions in Marriage 234

Emotions in Friendships 237

Gratitude 238

Emotional Mimicry 239

Social Support 240

Emotions in Hierarchical Relationships 241

Emotional Displays and the Negotiation of Social Rank 242

Power and Emotion 244

Social Class and Emotion 245

Emotion and Group Dynamics 247

Group and Collective Emotions 248

Group and Collective Emotion and Between-Group Conflict 250

Infrahumanization 251

Emotional Processes That Improve Group Relations 251

Emotional Intelligence 252

Summary 252

To Think About and Discuss 253

Further Reading 253

10 Emotions and Thinking 254

Passion and Reason 255

Emotions Prioritize Thoughts Goals and Actions 256

Emotion and Mood in Economic Behavior 259

The Ultimatum Game 259

Classical Economics 259

Affect Infusion and Affect as Information 260

Styles of Processing 263

Effects of Moods and Emotions on Cognitive Functioning 264

Perceptual Effects 264

Attentional Effects 265

Effects on Remembering 266

Emotion-Related Biases in Memory 267

Eyewitness Testimony 268

Persuasion 269

Morality 269

Intuitions and Principles 269

Cooperation 272

Emotions and the Law 273

Obligations of Society 273

Dispassionate Judgments? 274

Summary 275

To Think About and Discuss 276

Further Reading 276

Part IV Emotions and the Individual 277

11 Individual Differences in Emotionality 279

Emotionality Over the Life Span 280

Continuities in Emotionality from Childhood to Adulthood 280

From Temperament to Personality 282

Individual Differences in Emotion Shape How We Construe the World 283

Age-Related Changes in Temperament and Personality 284

Propensities in Emotionality That Shape the Relational Environment 285

Emotionality Moderates Environmental Risk 286

Attachment and Emotionality 287

What Is Attachment? 287

Attachment Status and Emotional Outcomes 288

Parental Sensitivity and Shared Thinking 289

From Parent Attachment to Child Attachment 290

The Role of Environmental Risk in Children’s Attachment Relationships 291

Genetic Influences on Attachment 291

Parental Behaviors Beyond Attachment 292

Biobehavioral Synchronization 292

Parental Mentalization and Reflective Capacity 292

Talk About Emotions 293

Parental Socialization of Emotion 295

Beyond Parenting: Influences of Siblings Peers and the Broader Social

Context 299

Siblings 300

Peers 301

Broader Social Context 302

Programs That Optimize Emotional Development 303

Summary 306

To Think About and Discuss 307

Further Reading 307

12 Psychopathology of Emotions in Childhood 308

Emotions and Psychopathology 309

The Case of Peter 309

Conceptualizing Childhood Disorders: Categories versus Dimensions 309

How Are Emotions Involved in Children’s Psychopathology? 310

Are Emotions Abnormal in Psychopathology? 311

Prevalence of Psychopathology in Childhood 312

Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology 312

Comorbidity Heterogeneity and the "p" Factor 313

The Relationship Between Risk Factors and Psychopathology 314

People Contexts and the Multilevel Environment 314

Risk and Resilience: The Combination of Risk and Protective Factors 315

Risk Factors 318

Biological Risk Factors 318

Proximal Risk Factors 322

Distal Risk Factors 326

Trajectories of Disorders 328

Homotypic and Heterotypic Continuity 329

Trajectories of Externalizing Problems 329

Trajectories of Internalizing Disorders 331

Interventions for Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 332

Summary 335

To Think About and Discuss 335

Further Reading 336

13 Emotional Disorders in Adulthood 337

Depression and Anxiety 338

Psychiatric Disorders: Symptoms and Prevalence 338

Psychiatric Epidemiology 338

Kinds of Depression and Anxiety 340

How Disorders Are Caused 343

Genetics 343

Environment 344

Life Events and Difficulties 346

Gene–Environment Interactions 349

Emotional Predispositions and Emotional Disorders 350

Vulnerability Factors 353

Social Support 353

Early Experience 353

Recurrence Recovery and Prolongation of Disorders 354

Recurrence 355

Recovery and Fresh Starts 356

Prolongation 356

Cognitive Biases in Anxiety and Other Emotional Disorders 357

Neurophysiology of Depression and Anxiety 358

Antidepressant Drugs 359

Beyond Depression and Anxiety 360

Psychopathic People in Society 360

Schizophrenia Emotion Expressed Emotion in Relatives 361

Psychosomatic Effects 362

Summary 363

To Think About and Discuss 363

Further Reading 363

14 A Meaningful Life 364

A Significant Event 365

Meaning in Life 365

Cooperation 366

Happiness 366

Relatedness 368

Satisfaction 369

Well-Being 370

Psychological Therapy with Others and by Oneself 372

Psychoanalysis: Unconscious Schemas of Relating 374

Rogerian Counseling: Empathetic Support 376

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Changing Emotional Life by Thought 376

Emotion-Focused Therapy: Changing Emotional Life by Emotions 377

Outcomes of Psychotherapy 378

Psychotherapy Without Therapists 381

Mindfulness Ancient and Modern 382

Consciously Making Sense of Emotions 384

Emotions in Literature 386

Emotion and Free Will 387

Emotion and Meaning in the Social World 389

Summary 390

To Think About and Discuss 390

Further Reading 390

References 391

Author Index 485

Subject Index 501

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