Patterns for College Writing A Rhetorical Reader and Guide

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Edition: 15th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2020-10-07
Publisher(s): Bedford/St. Martin's
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Patterns for College Writing provides instruction, visual texts, diverse essays, and student writing examples to help you develop your writing skills using rhetorical patterns like narration, description, argumentation, and more.

Table of Contents

New readings are marked with an asterisk *

Introduction: How to Use This Book
              Henry Louis Gates Jr., “What’s in a Name?”
              Responding to an Essay
              Responding to Other Kinds of Texts

PART ONE: The Writing Process
       Chapter 1: Reading to Write: Becoming a Critical Reader
Understanding Critical Reading
              Determining Your Purpose
       CHECKLIST: Questions about Your Purpose
Brent Staples, Cutting and Pasting: A Senior Thesis by (Insert Name)
Moisés Naím, The YouTube Effect
CHECKLIST: Questions for Critical Reading
Brent Staples, Cutting and Pasting: A Senior Thesis by (Insert Name) (with sample
              Reading Visual Texts
       CHECKLIST: Reading Visual Texts

Chapter 2: Invention
Understanding Your Assignment
Setting Limits
CHECKLIST: Setting Limits
Moving from Subject to Topic
              Questions for Probing
CHECKLIST: Questions for Probing
A Student Writer: Freewriting
Finding Something to Say
A Student Writer: Brainstorming
              Journal Writing
A Student Writer: Journal Writing
Grouping Ideas
A Student Writer: Clustering
              Making an Informal Outline
A Student Writer: Making an Informal Outline
Understanding Thesis and Support
Developing a Thesis
              Defining the Thesis Statement
              Deciding on a Thesis
              Stating Your Thesis
              Implying a Thesis
       A Student Writer: Developing a Thesis
       CHECKLIST: Stating Your Thesis

Chapter 3: Arrangement
             Recognizing a Pattern
       CHECKLIST: Recognizing a Pattern
Understanding the Parts of the Essay
              The Introduction
       CHECKLIST: What Not to Do in an Introduction
              The Body Paragraphs
       CHECKLIST: Effective Support
              The Conclusion
       CHECKLIST: What Not to Do in a Conclusion
              Constructing a Formal Outline
       CHECKLIST: Constructing a Formal Outline
       A Student Writer: Constructing a Formal Outline

Chapter 4: Drafting and Revising
       Writing Your First Draft
       CHECKLIST: Drafting
A Student Writer: Writing a First Draft
       Revising Your Essay
              Revising with an Outline
              Revising with a Checklist
       CHECKLIST: Revising
              Revising with Your Instructor’s Written Comments
              Revising in a Conference
              Revising in a Peer-Editing Group
       CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Peer Editing
       Strategies for Revising
A Student Writer: Revising a First Draft
Peer Editing Worksheet
Points for Special Attention: First Draft
              The Introduction
              The Body Paragraphs
              The Conclusion
       A Student Writer: Revising a Second Draft
Points for Special Attention: Second Draft
             The Introduction
              The Body Paragraphs
              The Conclusion
              Working with Sources
              The Title
       A Student Writer: Preparing a Final Draft
SAMPLE STUDENT ESSAY: Laura Bobnak, The Price of Silence (Student Essay)

Chapter 5: Editing and Proofreading
Editing for Grammar
              Be Sure Subjects and Verbs Agree
              Be Sure Verb Tenses Are Accurate and Consistent
              Be Sure Pronoun References Are Clear
              Be Sure Sentences Are Complete
              Be Careful Not to Run Sentences Together without Proper Punctuation
              Be Careful to Avoid Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
              Be Sure Sentence Elements Are Parallel
       CHECKLIST: Editing for Grammar
Editing for Punctuation
              Learn When to Use Commas — and When Not to Use Them
              Learn When to Use Semicolons
              Learn When to Use Apostrophes
              Learn When to Use Quotation Marks
              Learn When to Use Dashes and Colons
       CHECKLIST: Editing for Punctuation
Editing for Sentence Style and Word Choice        
              Eliminate Awkward Phrasing
              Be Sure Your Sentences Are Concise
              Be Sure Your Sentences Are Varied
              Choose Your Words Carefully
       CHECKLIST: Editing for Sentence Style and Word Choice
Proofreading Your Essay
              Check for Commonly Confused Words
              Check for Misspellings and Faulty Capitalization
              Check for Typos
       CHECKLIST: Proofreading
Checking Your Paper’s Format
       CHECKLIST: Checking Your Paper’s Format

PART TWO: Readings for Writers

Chapter 6: Narration
       What Is Narration?
       Using Narration
       Planning a Narrative Essay
              Developing a Thesis Statement
              Including Enough Detail
              Varying Sentence Structure
              Maintaining Clear Narrative Order
Structuring a Narrative Essay
Revising a Narrative Essay
       REVISION CHECKLIST: Narration
Editing a Narrative Essay
       EDITING CHECKLIST: Narration
A Student Writer: Literacy Narrative
              Erica Sarno, Becoming a Writer (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
A Student Writer: Narration
              Tiffany Forte, My Field of Dreams (Student Essay)
       Points for Special Attention
       Focus on Revision
Visual Text: Marjane Satrapi, from Persepolis II (Graphic Fiction)
Junot Díaz, The Money
*Hanif Abdurraqib, My First Police Stop
Bonnie Smith-Yackel, My Mother Never Worked
Martin Gansberg, Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police
George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant
*Alberto Alvaro Rios, The Secret Lion (Fiction)
*Joy Harjo, An American Sunrise (Poetry)
Writing Assignments for Narration
Collaborative Activity for Narration

Chapter 7: Description
What Is Description?
Using Description
              Understanding Objective Description
       CHECKLIST: Using Visuals Effectively
              Understanding Subjective Description
              Using Objective and Subjective Language
              Selecting Details
Planning a Descriptive Essay
              Developing a Thesis Statement
              Organizing Details
              Using Transitions
Structuring a Descriptive Essay
Revising a Descriptive Essay
       REVISION CHECKLIST: Description
Editing a Descriptive Essay
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
       EDITING CHECKLIST: Description
A Student Writer: Objective Description
              Mallory Cogan, My Grandfather’s Globe (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
       Focus on Revision
A Student Writer: Subjective Description
              Mary Lim, The Valley of Windmills (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
Peer-Editing Worksheet: Description
Visual Text: Ansel Adams, Jackson Lake (Photo)
Bich Minh Nguyen, Goodbye to My Twinkie Days
*Trevor Noah, Soweto
Marina Keegan, Stability in Motion
Heather Rogers, The Hidden Life of Garbage
*Jonathan Ababiy, How the Other Half Lived
Kate Chopin, The Storm (Fiction)

Chapter 8: Exemplification
What Is Exemplification?
Using Exemplification
              Using Examples to Explain and Clarify
              Using Examples to Add Interest
              Using Examples to Persuade
Planning an Exemplification Essay
              Developing a Thesis Statement
              Providing Enough Examples
              Choosing a Fair Range of Examples
              Using Transitions
Structuring an Exemplification Essay
Revising an Exemplification Essay
       REVISION CHECKLIST: Exemplification
Editing an Exemplification Essay
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using Commas in a Series
       EDITING CHECKLIST: Exemplification
A Student Writer: Exemplification
Kristy Bredin, Job Application Letter (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
A Student Writer: Exemplification
*Zoe Goldfarb, Food Insecurity on Campus (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
Peer-Editing Worksheet: Exemplification
*Visual Texts: Four Inventions
*Olivia Goldhill, Should Driverless Cars Kill Their Own Passengers to Save a Pedestrian?
Judith Ortiz Cofer, The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria
Brent Staples, Just Walk On By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space
*Farhad Manjoo, Call Me “They”
Maia Szalavitz, Ten Ways We Get the Odds Wrong
Jamaica Kincaid, “Girl” (Fiction)
Writing Assignments for Exemplification
Collaborative Activity for Exemplification

Chapter 9: Process
What Is Process?
              Understanding Instructions
              Understanding Process Explanations
Using Process
Planning a Process Essay
              Accommodating Your Audience
              Developing a Thesis Statement
              Using Transitions
Structuring a Process Essay
Revising a Process Essay
Editing a Process Essay
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding Unnecessary Shifts
A Student Writer: Instructions
*Mya Nunnally, Steps to the Dream (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
A Student Writer: Process Explanation
Melany Hunt, Medium Ash Brown (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
Peer Editing Worksheet: Process
Visual Text: National Geographic, Yellowstone Fires, Past and Future (Illustrations)
Naomi Rosenberg, How to Tell a Mother Her Child Is Dead
*Roger Spranz, How to Make a Waste Pie Chart
*Brad Plumer and Ruairi Arrieta-Kenna, How Do Hurricanes Form? A Step-by-Step Guide
*Eugene Kiely and Lori Robertson, How to Spot Fake News
Jessica Mitford, The Embalming of Mr. Jones
Shirley Jackson, The Lottery (Fiction)

Chapter 10: Cause and Effect
What Is Cause and Effect?
Using Cause and Effect
              Understanding Main and Contributory Causes
              Understanding Immediate and Remote Causes
              Understanding Causal Chains
              Avoiding Post Hoc Reasoning
Planning a Cause-and-Effect Essay
              Developing a Thesis Statement
              Arranging Causes and Effects
              Using Transitions
Structuring a Cause-and-Effect Essay
              Finding Causes
              Describing or Predicting Effects
Revising a Cause-and-Effect Essay
       REVISION CHECKLIST: Cause and Effect
Editing a Cause-and-Effect Essay
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding “The reason is because”; Using Affect and Effect
       EDITING CHECKLIST: Cause and Effect
A Student Writer: Cause and Effect
Evelyn Pellicane, The Irish Famine (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
Peer-Editing Worksheet: Cause and Effect
Visual Text: Jeffrey Coolidge, Rube Goldberg Machine (Photo)
*Ray Fisman and Michael Luca, Did Free Pens Cause the Opioid Crisis?
Maggie Koerth-Baker, Why Rational People Buy into Conspiracy Theories
*Arthur W. Lambert, What Causes Cancer? It’s Complicated
Linda M. Hasselstrom, A Peaceful Woman Explains Why She Carries a Gun
Karen Miller Pensiero, Photos That Change History
*Martin Espada, Why I Went to College (Poetry)

Chapter 11: Comparison and Contrast
              What Is Comparison and Contrast?
              Using Comparison and Contrast
              Planning a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay
              Recognizing Comparison-and-Contrast Assignments
              Establishing a Basis for Comparison
              Selecting Points for Discussion
              Developing a Thesis Statement
Structuring a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay
              Using Subject-by-Subject Comparison
              Using Point-by-Point Comparison
              Using Transitions
       Revising a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay
       REVISION CHECKLIST: Comparison and Contrast
       Editing a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using Parallelism
EDITING CHECKLIST: Comparison and Contrast
A Student Writer: Subject-by-Subject Comparison
Mark Cotharn, Brains versus Brawn (Student Essay)
       Points for Special Attention
       Focus on Revision
A Student Writer: Point-by-Point Comparison
Maria Tecson, A Comparison of Two Websites on Attention Deficit Disorder (Student Essay)
       Points for Special Attention
       Focus on Revision
Peer-Editing Worksheet: Comparison and Contrast
Visual Texts: Auguste Rodin, The Kiss, and Robert Indiana, LOVE (Sculptures)
*Robert Weiss, Closer Together or Further Apart: Digital Devices and the New Generation Gap
Amy Chua, Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior
Ellen Laird, I’m Your Teacher, Not Your Internet-Service Provider
Deborah Tannen, Sex, Lies, and Conversation
Isabel Wilkerson, Emmett Till and Tamir Rice, Sons of the Great Migration
*Steven Conn, The Twin Revolutions of Lincoln and Darwin
William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? (Poetry)
Writing Assignments for Comparison-Contrast
Collaborative Activity for Comparison-Contrast

Chapter 12: Classification and Division
What Is Classification and Division?
              Understanding Classification
              Understanding Division
Using Classification and Division
Planning a Classification-and-Division Essay
              Selecting and Arranging Categories
              Developing a Thesis Statement
       CHECKLIST: Establishing Categories
              Using Transitions
Structuring a Classification-and-Division Essay
Revising a Classification-and-Division Essay
REVISION CHECKLIST: Classification and Division
Editing a Classification-and-Division Essay
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using a Colon to Introduce Your Categories
       Editing Checklist: Classification and Division
       A Student Writer: Classification and Division
Josie Martinez, What I Learned (and Didn’t Learn) in College (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
Peer-Editing Worksheet: Classification and Division
*Visual Text: Matt Groening, The 9 Types of College Teachers (Cartoon)
*Mindy Kaling, Flick Chicks
Carolyn Foster Segal, The Dog Ate My Tablet, and Other Tales of Woe
Amy Tan, Mother Tongue
Stephanie Ericsson, The Ways We Lie
Amy Lowell, Patterns (Poetry)
Writing Assignments for Classification and Division
Collaborative Activity for Classification and Division

Chapter 13: Definition
What Is Definition?
              Understanding Formal Definitions
              Understanding Extended Definitions
Using Definition
Planning a Definition Essay
              Developing a Thesis Statement
              Deciding on a Pattern of Development
Structuring a Definition Essay
Revising a Definition Essay
       REVISION CHECKLIST: Definition
Editing a Definition Essay
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding is when and is where
       EDITING CHECKLIST: Definition
A Student Writer: Definition
Ajoy Mahtab, The Untouchable (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
Peer-Editing Worksheet: Definition
*Visual Text: Allson Bechdel, The Rule (Cartoon)
Judy Brady, I Want a Wife
José Antonio Burciaga, Tortillas
*Virginia Foxx, What Education Really Means
Emily Dickinson, “Hope” is the thing with feathers (Poetry)
Writing Assignments for Definition
Collaborative Activity for Definition

Chapter 14: Argumentation
What Is Argumentation?
Understanding Argumentation and Persuasion
Planning an Argumentative Essay
              Choosing a Topic
              Developing a Thesis
              Analyzing Your Audience
              Gathering and Documenting Evidence
              Dealing with the Opposition
              Understanding Rogerian Argument
       CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Using Rogerian Argument
Using Deductive and Inductive Arguments
              Using Deductive Arguments
              Using Inductive Arguments
              Using Toulmin Logic
              Recognizing Fallacies
              Using Transitions
Structuring an Argumentative Essay
Revising an Argumentative Essay
       REVISION CHECKLIST: Argumentation
Editing an Argumentative Essay
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using Coordinating and Subordinating Conjunctions
       EDITING CHECKLIST: Argumentation
A Student Writer: Argumentation
Marta Ramos, Just Say No (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
Peer-Editing Worksheet: Argumentation
Visual Text:, You Don’t Want Them Responding to Your Text (Ad)
Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence
Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure
Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail
*· DEBATE: Should Federal Student Loans Be Forgiven?
*Mary Clare Anselem, No, Your Student Loans Should Not Be Forgiven
*Eric Levitz, We Must Cancel Everyone’s Student Debt, for the Economy’s Sake
*· DEBATE: Can Individuals Actually Do Anything to Prevent Climate Change?
*Leor Hackel and Gregg Sparkman, Reducing Your Carbon Footprint Still Matters
*Natasha Geiling, The Only Individual Action that Matters is Voting for People Who Care About Climate Change
*· CASEBOOK: Is Free Speech on Campus in Peril?
Geoffrey R. Stone, Free Expression in Peril?
*Laura Beth Neilson, The Case for Restricting Hate Speech
Sophie Downes, Trigger Warnings, Safe Spaces, and Free Speech, Too
*Shannon Paulus, The Latest Study on Trigger Warnings Finally Convinced Me That They’re Not Worth It
*VISUAL: Freedom of Speech
*· CASEBOOK: How Can We Stem the Tide of Gun Violence?
*German Lopez, Guns Are the Problem
*Gregory/Wilson, Six Real Ways We Can Reduce Gun Violence in America
*William V. Glastris Jr, A Real Long-Term Solution to Gun Violence
*Clifton Leaf, How Australia All But Ended Gun Violence
*VISUAL: The Ghastlygun Tinies from MAD Magazine

Chapter 15: Combining the Patterns
Structuring an Essay by Combining the Patterns
Combining the Patterns: Revising and Editing
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns
A Student Writer: Combining the Patterns
Michael Huu Truong, The Park (Student Essay)
              Points for Special Attention
              Focus on Revision
Peer-Editing Worksheet: Combining the Patterns
Lars Eighner, On Dumpster Diving
*Olivia Judson, Long Live the Albatross
David Kirby, Inked Well
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
Writing Assignments for Combining the Patterns
Collaborative Activity for Combining the Patterns

PART THREE: Working with Sources
Chapter 16: Finding and Evaluating Sources
Finding Information in the Library
Finding Information on the Internet
Finding Useful Information
Evaluating Sources

Chapter 17: Integrating Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
Integrating Source Material into Your Writing
Avoiding Plagiarism
              Avoiding Common Errors That Lead to Plagiarism
              Avoiding Plagiarism with Online Sources

Chapter 18: Documenting Sources: MLA
Parenthetical References in the Text
The Works-Cited List
              Internet Sources
              Other Internet Sources
       Other Nonprint Sources
Model Student Research Paper in MLA Style
Philip Lau, The Limitations of Wikipedia (Student Essay in MLA Style)

Appendix: Documenting Sources: APA
       Using Parenthetical References
       Examples of APA Citations
              Internet Sources
       Model Student Paper in APA Style
       Philip Lau, The Limitations of Wikipedia (Student Essay in APA Style)

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