Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners The SIOP Model

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Edition: 5th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2016-01-06
Publisher(s): Pearson
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Note: This is the bound book only and does not include access to the Enhanced Pearson eText. To order the Enhanced Pearson eText packaged with a bound book, use ISBN 0134403290.


Using a writing style that is practical and applicable to all kinds of classrooms, this widely popular book presents a user-friendly approach for planning and implementing lessons for teaching English learners and other students. It provides students with access to grade-level content, develops their academic English skills, and prepares them to be college and career ready. The SIOP model is a comprehensive, coherent, research-validated, success-proven model for improving teaching effectiveness and ensuring academic gains for students. It can be implemented in all content areas at all grade levels and English proficiency levels. Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners provides specific application of the SIOP to the Common Core and other state standards and includes a Reflect and Apply eText feature in which readers explain their rating of teachers’ lessons, and Teaching with Technology vignettes that describe how to infuse technology into many different SIOP lessons. The Enhanced Pearson eText features new video links inserted throughout to illustrate chapter topics and discussion points. Check for Understanding and end-of-chapter quizzes provide a comprehensive means for gauging student understanding.


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Author Biography

Jana Echevarría, Ph.D., is Professor Emerita at California State University, Long Beach where she was selected as Outstanding Professor. She has taught in elementary, middle, and high school in general education, special education, ESL, and bilingual programs. An internationally known expert on second language learners, she has lived and worked in Taiwan, Mexico, and Spain. Her research and publications focus on effective instruction for English learners, including those with learning disabilities. She has presented her research across the U.S. and internationally including Oxford University (England), Wits University (South Africa), Harvard University (U.S.), Stanford University (U.S.), University of Barcelona (Spain) and South East Europe University (Macedonia) where she was a Fulbright Specialist. A founding researcher of the SIOP Model her publications include multiple books, book chapters and journal articles.


MaryEllen Vogt, Ed.D., is Professor Emerita of Education at California State University, Long Beach. Dr. Vogt, a former classroom teacher, reading specialist, curriculum coordinator, and teacher educator, received her doctorate from the University of California, Berkeley. She is an author of over 60 articles and chapters, and is co-author of seventeen books for teachers and administrators, including Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model. Her research interests include improving comprehension in the content areas, teacher change and development, and content literacy and language acquisition for English learners. Dr. Vogt has provided professional development in all fifty states and in several other countries, including Germany, where she was invited to serve as a Visiting Scholar at the University of Cologne. She was inducted into the California Reading Hall of Fame, received her university’s Distinguished Faculty Teaching Award, and served as President of the International Reading Association.


Deborah J. Short, Ph.D., founded and directs Academic Language Research & Training, a consulting company, and provides professional development on sheltered instruction, content-based language teaching, and academic literacy worldwide. Formerly she was a Division Director at the Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC, where she directed quasi-experimental and experimental studies on English learners funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Rockefeller Foundation, and U.S. Department of Education, among others. Her publications include journal articles, the SIOP® Model book series, and several ESL textbook series for National Geographic/Cengage. She taught English as a second/foreign language in New York, California, Virginia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. She has served on the Board of Directors of the TESOL International Association and has presented research in the U.S., Canada, New Zealand, Brazil, Europe, and the Middle East.

Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents

1 Introducing the SIOP® Model

2 Lesson Preparation

3 Building Background

4 Comprehensible Input

5 Strategies

6 Interaction

7 Practice & Application

8 Lesson Delivery

9 Review & Assessment

10 Issues of Reading, RTI, and Special Education for English Learners

11 Effective Use of the SIOP® Protocol

12 Frequently Asked Questions: Getting Started with the SIOP® Model



Detailed Table of Contents

1 Introducing the SIOP® Model 1

Background on English Learners 3

Demographic Trends 3

Diverse Characteristics 4

School Reform, Standards, and Accountability 8

Achievement Gaps 10

Academic Language and Literacy 12

Research on Academic Language and Literacy 13

Role in Schooling 13

Effective Instructional Practice for English Learners: The SIOP® Model 15

Content-based ESL and Sheltered Content Instruction 15

Research and Development of the Sheltered Instruction Observation

Protocol (SIOP®) Model 17

Effective SIOP® Model Instruction 20

Implementing the SIOP® Model 24

Summary 25

Discussion Questions 25


2 Lesson Preparation 27

Background 28

Selecting and Writing Content and Language Objectives 35

Teaching Ideas for Lesson Preparation 50

Differentiating Ideas for Multi-level Classes 53

Rating Lessons with the SIOP® Protocol 54

The Lesson 55

Teaching Scenarios 56

Discussion of Lessons 62

Teaching with Technology 66

Summary 68

Discussion Questions 68


3 Building Background 70

Background 71

Something to Think About 74

Academic Vocabulary 76

Word Consciousness 80

Teaching Academic Vocabulary 80

Teaching Ideas for Building Background 81

Differentiating Ideas for Multi-level Classes 88

The Lesson 89

Teaching Scenarios 90

Discussion of Lessons 96

Teaching with Technology 99

Summary 100

Discussion Questions 100


4 Comprehensible Input 102

Background 104

Teaching Ideas for Comprehensible Input 111

Differentiating Ideas for Multi-level Classes 112

The Lesson 113

Teaching Scenarios 113

Discussion of Lessons 118

Teaching with Technology 122

Summary 124

Discussion Questions 124


5 Strategies 125

Background 126

Things to Consider When Teaching Learning Strategies 128

Three Types of Scaffolding 131

Teaching Ideas for Strategies 133

Differentiating Ideas for Multi-level Classes 136

The Lesson 137

Teaching Scenarios 138

Discussion of Lessons 145

Teaching with Technology 149

Summary 150

Discussion Questions 150


6 Interaction 152

Background 154

Typical Lesson 155

SIOP® Lesson 156

Oral Language Development 158

Teaching Ideas for Interaction 167

Differentiating Ideas for Multi-level Classes 169

The Lesson 171

Teaching Scenarios 171

Discussion of Lessons 176

Teaching with Technology 179

Summary 180

Discussion Questions 181


7 Practice & Application 182

Background 183

Teaching Ideas for Practice & Application 189

Differentiating Ideas for Multi-level Classes 190

The Lesson 192

Teaching Scenarios 193

Discussion of Lessons 198

Teaching with Technology 201

Summary 202

Discussion Questions 202


8 Lesson Delivery 204

Background 205

Linking Lesson Preparation and Lesson Delivery 210

Teaching Ideas for Lesson Delivery 212

Differentiating Ideas for Multi-level Classes 213

The Lesson 214

Teaching Scenarios 215

Discussion of Lessons 218

Teaching with Technology 222

Summary 223

Discussion Questions 223


9 Review & Assessment 225

Background 226

Classroom Context and the Review & Assessment Component 227

Formative and Summative Assessment 228

Informal Assessment 228

Formal Assessment 229

Teaching Ideas for Review & Assessment 235

Differentiating Ideas for Multi-level Classes 238

The Lesson 240

Teaching Scenarios 240

Discussion of Lessons 246

Teaching with Technology 250

Summary 251

Discussion Questions 252


10 Issues of Reading, RTI, and Special Education for English Learners 254

Issues of Reading Development and Assessment 255

Estimating Students’ Reading Levels 257

English Learners and the Common Core State Standards for Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking 259

Assisting Struggling Learners: Response to Intervention 262

Issues Related to Special Education 264

Special Education Services: When Are They Appropriate? 267

Search for Intervention Rather than Disability 269

Teaching Ideas for Students with Special Needs 270

Summary 272

Discussion Questions 272


11 Effective Use of the SIOP® Protocol 274

Best Practice in Using the SIOP® Protocol 275

Scoring and Interpreting the SIOP® Protocol 277

Assigning Scores 278

Not Applicable (NA) Category 278

Calculating Scores 279

Using Non-Numeric Rating 280

Sample Lesson 280

Using SIOP® Scores and Comments 284

Reliability and Validity of the SIOP® 293

Summary 293

Discussion Questions 293


12 Frequently Asked Questions: Getting Started with the SIOP® Model 294

General SIOP® Questions 295

Questions About Getting Started with SIOP® in the Classroom 297

Questions About School-wide Implementation of the SIOP® Model 298


Appendix A: SIOP® (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) 302

Appendix B: Lesson Plans 312

Appendix C: Research on the SIOP® (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) Model 317

Appendix D: SIOP® Professional Development Resources 323

Glossary 326

References 331

Index 353

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