The History of Photography: An Overview

Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 1999-08-01
Publisher(s): Univ of New Mexico Pr
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First published in 1991, The History of Photographyexplores the people, technology, and imagery that have made photography such a tremendous force in modern culture. As technology has improved, the level to which society depends upon photography increases. Over the past 150 years, photographers and their works have taught, inspired, angered, and spurred several generations toward social and political action. This interdependence between society and the photographic image continues to strengthen and evolve. This book develops specific themes from pre-photography to the present. The reader will develop a deeper understanding of how major photographers have viewed their work, how attitudes toward photography have changed, and how photography has influenced world perceptions and events.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xi(2)
Introduction xiii
Photography and Its Impact on World Events--An Overview
Photography as a Scientific Tool
Photography as a Political Tool
Photography as a Sociological and Emotional Tool
1 From Photo-Graphy to Photography: 500 B.C. to 1840 A.D.
The Camera Obscura
Alternatives to the Camera Obscura
Arresting a Purely Photographic Image
Joseph Nicephore Niepce
Niepce and Daguerre--A Collaboration
The Daguerreotype--A Startling Invention
William Henry Fox Talbot--The Calotype
Negatives and Positives--Calotypes Versus Daguerreotypes
Hippolyte Bayard--A Losing Latecomer
Sir John Herschel's Early Contributions
2 Photography: Inventions, Problems, and Solutions--1840s to 1990s
Fuzzy and Fragile--Early Technical Problems
Portrait Mania Versus Long Exposures
Experiments with Emulsions
Collodion--A Quick but Awkward Solution
The Ambrotype--An Affordable Method
The Tintype--Fast and Affordable
The Carte-de-Visite and Cabinet Photograph
Early Photographic Printing Methods
Gelatin Dry Plates--Quick and Convenient
Hand-Held Cameras--Popular but Problematic
Early Experiments with Color
Breakthroughs in Color Photography
Early Artificial Flash--Dangerous and Unpredictable
Flash from the 1880s to the 1930s--Significant Improvements
Looking Forward--Photographic Technology from 1960 to 1990
3 Camera and Canvas--The Alliance between Painters and Photographers
Sketching Methods Using Photo-Graphic Tools
Daguerre the Painter
Portraiture--Painters Versus Photographers
The Photograph as a Visual Reference
Photographic Assistance to Form-in-Motion
Photography Affords "Too Much Truth"
Paintings and Photographs--Nonliteral Representation
Photographs and Paint--Sharing the Same Surface
Painters and Photographers--A True Collaboration
4 Social Documents--Photography and Social Culture
Laborers and Living Conditions--1850 to 1905
The Social Culture of the Workplace
Social and Cultural Uses of Photography
Culture and Subculture
Jacques Henri Lartigue--A Privileged Social Culture
An Emerging Black Subculture--New York City--1920 to 1950
The Social Culture of Economic Change--America--1929 to 1939
A Social and Political Landscape--Europe and Japan--1930 to 1940
The Modern American Social Culture--1955 to 1990
A Global Social Culture--1950 to 1990
5 Landscape and Nature
Talbot, Science, and Documentation--1834 to 1844
Landscapes, Monuments, and Topographics--1850 to 1860
Burdens and Improvements: The Technical Process--1850s
The American West: Fact and Vision--1860s and 1870s
Landscape: Art, Science, and "Truth"--1840 to 1900
Integrated Landscapes--1840 to 1930
Classic Landscapes--1920 to 1990
Personal Landscapes
The Landscape of American Society--1970 to 1990
The Landscape of Space
6 Portraiture
Portraiture Prior to 1840
Early Photographic Portraiture
Expressive Portraits--1870s to 1920s
Portraiture for the Printed Page
The Portrait as an Allegorical Document
Family Portraits
Dematerialization and the Computer Portrait
7 Photojournalism
Early Visual Journalism
The Photographic Halftone Process
Photojournalist Crusades--1868 to 1924
Newspapers and Photographs
Smaller Cameras, Smaller World
Photojournalism in Europe--1925 to 1934
Life Magazine
Life and Politics
The Decline and Resurrection of Life
Color Reproduction in Photographic Journals
New Technologies--1960 to 1990
Today's Photojournalists
8 Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession
Snapshooters, Scientists, and "Artists"--1864 to 1890
The Pictorial Aesthetic
Stieglitz's Early Years--1881 to 1890
Stieglitz and the Camera Club--1890 to 1902
The Photo-Secession--1902 to 1917
Edward Steichen and Gertrude Kasebier
The Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession and "291"
The Buffalo and Armory Exhibitions, Modern Art, and Dada
Paul Strand
Stieglitz's Later Years--1917 to 1946
9 Farm Security Administration (FSA)
Economic Politics of the Depression
Economic Rehabilitation Programs and the Formation of the FSA
Roy Stryker and the Formation of the Photographic Corps
Assembling the FSA Photographic Corps
Walker Evans
Ben Shahn
Russell Lee
Dorothea Lange
The Twilight of the FSA Historical Section
10 Form and Design
Pictorial Design
The Search for Photographic Form
New Ideals--Design for the Printed Page
f/64--The Formal View
Design in 35-mm Photography--1930s to 1960s
Controlled Design: Fabrications and Computer Assistance--1980 to 1990
11 Photography and Combat
Roger Fenton, Felice Beato, and the Crimean War--1855
The American Civil War
Technology and Change--1880 to 1947
War Photography and Propaganda
American War Coverage and Life Magazine
Robert Capa and the MAGNUM Picture Agency
David Douglas Duncan and the Korean War
The Vietnam Conflict and Other Undeclared Wars
12 Manipulation
Early Photographic "Artifice"
Combination and Collaged Imagery
Oscar Gustave Rejlander and Henry Peach Robinson
Divorce from Reality--The Pictorialists
Man Ray
Photomontage and the Collapse of Photographic Space
Manipulation of Exposure--Edgerton and Mili
Multiple Exposure
Surreal Manipulated Visions
Nineteenth Century Techniques, Twentieth Century Interpretations
Breaking the Rules
Fabricated to be Photographed
Computer-based Manipulation
Notes 177(4)
Bibliography 181(1)
Photographic Credits 182(3)
Index 185

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