First Peoples A Documentary Survey of American Indian History

Edition: 6th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2018-09-19
Publisher(s): MPS HIGH SCHOOL
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Expertly authored by Colin G. Calloway, First Peoples has been praised for its inclusion of Native American sources and Calloway’s concerted effort to weave Native perspectives throughout the narrative. Emphasizing the importance of primary sources, each chapter includes a document project and picture essay organized around important themes in the chapter. This distinctive approach continues to make First Peoples the bestselling and most highly acclaimed text for the American Indian history survey.

Author Biography

Colin G. Calloway is the John Kimball Jr. 1943 Professor of History and Professor of Native American Studies at Dartmouth College. He served for two years as associate director of and editor at the D’Arcy McNickle Center for the History of the American Indian at the Newberry Library in Chicago and taught for seven years at the University of Wyoming. Professor Calloway has written many books on Native American history, including The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and The Transformation of North America (2006); One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark (2003); and two books for the Bedford Series in History and Culture: Our Hearts Fell to the Ground: Plains Indians Views of How the West Was Lost (1996), and The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (1994).

Table of Contents

Maps Tables, and Charts
Introduction: American Indians in American History
Perspectives on the Past
America’s Master Narrative
Indian History: A Shared Past
Working with Sources
A Note on Name Usage and Geographic Focus


Chapter 1: American History before Columbus
Determining What Came Before

Precontact Population
Creation Stories and Migration Theories
Debates over Native Origins
Glimpses of Precontact Societies
West Coast Affluence
Columbia Plateau Fishers
Great Basin Foragers
First Buffalo Hunters of the Plains
First Farmers of the Southwest
Farmers and Mound Builders of the Eastern Woodlands
Emerging Tribes and Confederacies
Seaborne Strangers
Chapter Review
A Navajo Emergence Story and an Iroquois Creation Story

Hastin Tlo’tsi hee, The Beginning
John Norton, Iroquois Creation Story (c. 1816)
PICTURE ESSAY: Early American Cities, Settlements, and Centers
The Ruins of Pueblo Bonito
Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde
Cahokia Mounds, c. a.d. 1150–1200
John White, Indian Village of Secoton (1585)
Iroquois Longhouse
Suggested Readings

Chapter 2 : The Invasions of America: Encounters, Epidemics, and Exchanges, 1492–1700s
First Contacts and Mutual Appraisals

Native America through the European Lens
Enduring Images
Columbian Exchanges
Changing New World Landscapes
Biological Catastrophes
Indians Confront the Spanish
A Mission for Gold and God
Conquest of the Aztecs
Searching for Other Empires
North American Attempts to Colonize and Christianize
The Pueblo War of Independence
Indians Confront the French
Commerce and Conflict
Pelts and Priests
Indians Confront the English
Securing a Beachhead in Virginia
Making a New England
Economic and Cultural Exchanges
Indians in Colonial Societies
Colonists in Indian Societies
Fur Trades and Slave Trades
The Impact of the Fur Trade
The Cost of the Fur Trade
Indian Slavery
Chapter Review
Cooperation, Contagion, and Conflict

William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation (1590–1657)
A Jesuit Assesses the Hurons and a Mi’kmaq Assesses the French
Jean de Brébeuf, The Mission to the Hurons (1635–37)
Chrestien LeClerq, A Mi’kmaq Questions French “Civilization” (1677)
PICTURE ESSAY: Images of Spanish Invasion
Theodore de Bry, Engraving depicting Christopher Columbus landing on Hispaniola (1592)
A Tlaxcalan Depiction of Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán’s Conquest of Northwestern Mexico, c. 1530
William Powell, The Discovery of the Mississippi by De Soto in 1541 (1853)
Spaniards on Horseback
Johnathan Warm Day, The Last Supper
Suggested Readings

Chapter 3 : War and Diplomacy in Colonial America, 1675–1763
A New World of Warfare and Words
Two Indian Wars of Independence

King Philip’s War
The Pueblo War of Independence
The Languages and Lessons of Indian Diplomacy
Attempts at Diplomatic Balance
Wars for America
A World Transformed by War
The French and English War
Division within Tribal Communities
Captives Taken, Captives Returned
Responses to Change in the West: Indian Power on the Plains
Horses Transform the Plains
Jostling for Position on the Plains
At the Confluence of Guns and Horses
War and Diplomacy on the Southern Plains
Chapter review
Indian Reasons for Going to War

John Easton, Metacomet Explains the Causes of “King Philip’s War,” from A Relacion of the Indyan Warre (1675)
Declaration of the Indian Juan (1681)
An English Treaty and a Penobscot Response
Treaty between the Abenaki Indians and the English at Casco Bay (1727)
Loron Sauguaarum, An Account of Negotiations Leading to the Casco Bay Treaty (1727)
Imperial Conflict and the Senecas
Tanaghrisson, Speech Defying the French
Mary Jemison (Dickewamis), A Narrative of Her Life (1824)
PICTURE ESSAY: Indian Diplomats in Eighteenth-Century London
John Verelst, Tac Yec Neen Ho Gar Ton (Hendrick, “Emperor of the Six Nations”) (1701)
Isaac Basire, Seven Cherokees (1730)
William Verelst, Creek Delegation Meets the Trustees of Georgia (1734) Francis Parsons, Cunne Shote (1762)
Jonathan Spilsbury, after Mason Chamberlain, The Reverend Mr. Samson Occom (1768)
Suggested Readings

Chapter 4 : Revolutions East and West, 1763–1800
Worlds Turned Upside Down

Pontiac’s War: Indians Confront a New Empire
Attempting to Draw a Line
Indians and the American Revolution
Indian Loyalties Divided
Treaties of Peace and Conquest
Indians Confront an Expanding Nation
The United States Develops an Indian — and a Land — Policy
Indians Build a United Defense
Upheavals in the West
Emerging and Colliding Powers on the Plains
California Missions
The Pacific Northwest Pelt Rush
Smallpox Used Them Up
Chapter Review
The Revolution Divides the Iroquois and the Cherokees

An Oneida Declaration of Neutrality (1775)
Henry Stuart, Report from Cherokee Country (1776)
An Indian Solution to the Conflict over Indian Lands
Western Indians, Message to the Commissioners of the United States (1793)
Smallpox Strikes the Blackfeet
Saukamappee, Death Came Over us All
PICTURE ESSAY: Northwest Coast Indians on the Brink: The Drawings of John Webber
John Webber, A View in Ship Cove, Nootka Sound (1778)
John Webber, Interior of Habitation at Nootka Sound (1778)
John Webber, A Woman of Nootka Sound (1778)
John Webber, A Man of Nootka Sound (1778)
John Webber, A Woman of Prince William’s Island (1778)
John Webber, A Man of Oonalashka (1778)
Suggested Readings

Chapter 5: American Indians and the New Nation, 1800–1840
Accommodating and Resisting Change

Adapting to New Ways
The Last Phases of United Indian Resistance
Lewis and Clark in Indian Country
Encounters on the Missouri
Over the Mountains and Back
Indian Removals
Roots of the Removal Policy
The Cherokee Resistance
Implementing Removal in the South
Removal in the North
Surviving behind the Frontier: Race, Class, and History in Nineteenth-Century New England
Chapter Review
The Vision of Techumseh
Tecumseh, Speech to the Osages (c.1881)
A Double Homicide at Two Medicine
Meriwether Lewis, An Account of His Fight with the Blackfeet (1806)
Cherokee Women Oppose Removal
Cherokee Women, Petition (May 2, 1817)
Cherokee Women, Petition (June 30, 1818)
Foundations of Federal Indian Law and a Native Response
John Marshall, Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
John Ross, Reactions to Worcester v. Georgia: Letter to Richard Taylor, John Baldridge, Sleeping Rabbit, Sicketowee, and Wahachee (April 28, 1832)
PICTURE ESSAY: Indian Life on the Upper Missouri: A Catlin/Bodmer Portfolio
Karl Bodmer, The Interior of the Hut of a Mandan Chief
Diagram of the Interior of an Earth Lodge
George Catlin, Mint, a Pretty Girl
Karl Bodmer, Pehriska-Ruhpa, Moennitarri Warrior, in the Costume of the Dog Dance
George Catlin, Pigeon’s Egg Head (The Light) Going to and Returning from Washington
Suggested Readings

Chapter 6: Defending the West, 1840–1890
Invaders from the East: Incursions before the American Civil War
The Ravages of Disease
Ethnic Cleansing in Texas, c. 1836–48
American Empire Reaches the Pacific Northwest, 1846–56
Genocide and Exploitation in California
Opening Clashes on the Plains, 1851–56
Wars and Treaties, 1861–74
Indian Experiences during the American Civil War
Final Treaties and Ongoing Conflicts, 1866–74
Land Seizure and Removal to Reservations
Battles for Sacred Lands and Homelands, 1875–78
The End of Apache Resistance
Different Strategies for Survival
Indian Scouts and Allies
Return of the Prophets
Chapter Review

Sixty Years of Kiowa History
The Dohasan Calendar (1832–92)
The Sioux, the Treaty of Fort Laramie, and the Black Hills
Treaty with the Sioux — Brulé, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, Sans Arcs, and Santee — and Arapaho (1868)
Chief Joseph’s Plea for Freedom
Chief Joseph, An Indian’s View of Indian Affairs (1879)
PICTURE ESSAY: The Battle of the Little Bighorn in Myth and History
William Cary, The Death Struggle of General Custer (1876)
Custer’s Last Stand (1904)
Little Big Man (1970)
Lakotas Fighting Custer’s Command
Indian Memorial at Little Bighorn
Suggested Readings

Chapter 7: “Kill the Indian and Save the Man,” 1870s–1920s
Americanizing the American Indian
Policies of Detribalization
Resistance Takes New Forms
The Dawes Allotment Act (1887)
Indian Territory Becomes Oklahoma
The Educational Assault on Indian Children
Removing Children from the Tribe
Life in the Schools
Surviving the Schools, Using the Education
The Two Worlds of Ohiyesa and Charles Eastman
Native Americans Enter the Twentieth Century
“I Still Live”: Indians in American Society
Cultural Expression and the American Way
A New Generation of Leaders
Soldiers and Citizens
Indian Affairs in the 1920s
Chapter Review
An American Reformer Views “the Indian Problem” and an Indian Reformer Views the Indian Bureau
Merrill E. Gates, From the Seventeenth Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners (1885)
Carlos Montezuma, What Indians Must Do (1914)
Two Sioux School Experiences
Luther Standing Bear, What a School Could Have Been Established (1933)
Zitkala-Ša, The Melancholy of Those Black Days (1921)
PICTURE ESSAY: The Fort Marion Artists
Howling Wolf, Cheyenne Warrior Striking an Enemy
Courtship Scene
Paul Caryl Zotom, On the Parapet of Ft. Marion Next Day after Arrival (c. 1875)
Distribution of Goods
Chief Killer, Education of the Fort Marion Prisoners (1875–78)
Wo-Haw, Self-Portrait (c. 1875)
Suggested Readings

Chapter 8: From the Great Crash to Wounded Knee, 1929–1974
A New Era in Indian Affairs?

John Collier and the Indian New Deal
The Indian Reorganization Act
Opposing and Disputing the IRA
Indians and World War II
The Indian Claims Commission
Removing the Government’s Trust Responsibilities
Relocation and Urban Indians
Drowning Homelands
A Younger Generation Responds
Upheaval in America
The Rise of Indian Militancy
The American Indian Movement
Siege at Wounded Knee
Legacies of Wounded Knee
Chapter Review
Two Views of the Indian Reorganization Act
John Collier, An “Indian Renaissance,” from the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1935)
D’Arcy McNickle, Four Years of Indian Reorganization
Indians in the Cities
Ignatia Broker, Brought to a Brotherhood (1983)
Documents of Indian Militancy
Clyde Warrior, “We Are Not Free”: From Testimony before the President’s National Advisory Commission on Rural Poverty (1967)
Mary Crow Dog, A Woman’s View from Wounded Knee (1991)
PICTURE ESSAY: Indians and World War II
Banning the Swastika
Iroquois Declare War on the Axis Powers on the Steps of the U.S. Capitol, June 1942
Indian Women in the Marine Corps Reserve
Navajo Code Talkers, December 1943
Flag Raising at Iwo Jima
Quincy Tahoma, First Furlough (1943)
Suggested Readings

Chapter 9: Self-Determination and Sovereignty, 1970–2010
From Paternalism to Partnership

Protecting Women’s Reproductive Rights
Regaining Rights: Child Welfare and Religious Freedom
Taking Back Education
Indian Education for Indian Students
Tribal Colleges
The Struggle for Natural Resources
Coal, Uranium, Oil, and Gas
Fighting For and Against Water
Sovereignty Goes to Court
Victories for Tribal Rights
Chipping Away at Tribal Sovereignty
Economic Success through Sovereignty
The Rise of Indian Gaming
A Devil’s Bargain?
New Eras in Washington?
Changes at the BIA
Repatriation and a New Museum
A New Embassy and a New “White Father”
Chapter Review
The Supreme Court and Tribal Sovereignty: The Oliphant Decision and Its Impact on Indian Country

Supreme Court of the United States, Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe (1978
Indian Leadership at the End of the Twentieth Century
Vine Deloria Jr., The Popularity of Being Indian: A New Trend in Contemporary American Society (1984)
Wilma Mankiller, Returning the Balance (1993)
PICTURE ESSAY: Indian Artists Depict Modern Indian Life
David P. Bradley, Indian Country Today (1996)
Harry Fonseca, Coyote Woman in the City (1979)
Peter Jones, Sovereign –Indian
Jack Malotte, It’s Hard to Be -Traditional When You’re All Plugged In
Bunky Echo-Hawk, Before Here Was Here
Suggested Readings

Chapter 10: Nations within a Nation: Indian Country Today
A Twenty-First-Century Renaissance
The Census: An Evolving Profile of Indian America
Who Is an Indian?
“Recognized” and “Nonrecognized” Tribes
Old Stereotypes and New Images
“The White Man’s Indian
Playing Indian and Fighting Mascots
Nations within a Nation
Nations, Not Minorities
Third Sovereigns, Triple Citizens, and Tribal Justice
Global Indigenous Nations
Building Well Nations
Building Prosperity through Sovereignty
Confronting Drugs and Alcohol
Balancing Ways of Healing
Restoring Safety to Tribal Citizens
The Welfare of Indian Children
Revitalizing Nations
Protecting Culture and Preserving Language
Educating Citizens
Homelands, Wastelands, and Pipelines
Nuclear Waste in Indian Country
The Earth Hurts
Global Warming and New Partnerships
Protesting Pipelines
Conclusion: History Matters
Chapter Review
Protecting Native Women
Deborah Parker, I am a Native Statistic (2012)
Pipelines and Treaty Rights
United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Statement on the Dakota Access Pipeline (November 4, 2016)
Dave Archambault II, Standing Rock Siox Tribe v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (February 10, 2017)
U.S.–Indian Relations on a World Stage
International Indian Treaty Council, Declaration of Continuing Independence (June 1974)
General Assembly of the United Nations, United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (September 13, 2007)
PICTURE ESSAY: Tribal Sovereignty in Action
Pawnee Nation Flag
Tribal Police
Navajo Supreme Court
Tipis on the Mall
Standing with Standing Rock
Suggested Readings

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