Exploring American Histories, Volume 1 A Survey with Sources

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Edition: 4th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2021-09-14
Publisher(s): Bedford/St. Martin's
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Summary

Exploring American Histories guides you through the nation’s history, giving voice to an extraordinary variety of Americans, while teaching you to work with historical documents in the same way as professional historians.

Table of Contents

The Combined Volume includes all chapters.
Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-14.
Volume 2 includes Chapters 14-29.

NOTE: Achieve for Exploring American Histories, 4e includes additional activities and assessments for the book content. Along with the interactive e-books for the main text and the companion source reader, Achieve provides quizzes for the source features in the book and the documents in the companion reader, LearningCurve adaptive quizzing, and a variety of autograded exercises that help students develop their historical thinking skills. Many of these resources are set up for quick use in the pre-built courses in Achieve, which can be customized easily, and Achieve also allows instructors to create quiz questions and upload their own documents.

Preface
Versions and Supplements
Maps, Figures, and Tables
How to Use This Book

Chapter 1

Mapping Global Frontiers, to 1590

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

Malintzin and Martin Waldseemüller

Native Peoples in the Americas

Native Peoples Develop Diverse Cultures

The Aztecs, the Maya, and the Incas

Native Cultures to the North

Europe Expands Its Reach

The Mediterranean World

Portugal Pursues Long-Distance Trade

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 1.1 Martin Waldseemüller and Mathias Ringmann, Universalis Cosmographia, 1507

European Encounters with West Africa

Worlds Collide

Europeans Cross the Atlantic

Europeans Explore the Americas

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Who Are These Native People?

Source 1.2 Christopher Columbus, Description of His First Encounter with Indians, 1492

Source 1.3 Antonio Pigafetta, Journal, 1521

Mapmaking and Printing

The Columbian Exchange

Europeans Make Claims to North America

Spaniards Conquer Indian Empires

Spanish Adventurers Head North

Europeans Compete in North America

Spain Seeks Dominion in Europe and the Americas

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Indians in the New Spanish Empire

Source 1.4 Camilla Townsend, An Indian Woman Aids in the Conquest of Mexico, 2006 Source 1.5 Jane E. Mangan, Indians Seek to Benefit from Spanish Conquest, 2005

Conclusion: A Transformed America

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 1

Indian and Spanish Encounters in the Americas, 1519–1530

Source 1.6 Hernán Cortés, Letter to King Charles I, 1520 Source 1.7 Aztec Priests, Respond to the Spanish, 1524 Source 1.8 Hernán Cortés and Malintzin Meet Montezuma at Tenochtitlán, 1519 Source 1.9 Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, La Relación, c. 1528

Chapter 2

Colonization and Conflicts, 1580–1680

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

Powhatan and Anne Hutchinson

Religious, Economic, and Imperial Transformations

The Protestant Reformation

Spain’s Global Empire Declines

France Enters the Race for Empire

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 2.1 A French Nun Reports a Huron Woman’s View of the Jesuits, 1640

The Dutch Expand into North America

The English Seek an Empire

The English Establish Jamestown

Tobacco Fuels Growth in Virginia

Expansion, Rebellion, and the Emergence of Slavery

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Indentured Servants In the Chesapeake

Source 2.2 Sarah Tailer Charges Captain and Mrs. Thomas Bradnox with Abuse, 1659 Source 2.3 Report of a Committee of the Assembly Concerning the Freedom of Elizabeth Key, 1656

The English Compete for West Indies Possessions

Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

Pilgrims Arrive in Massachusetts

The Puritan Migration

The Puritan Worldview

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Colonial Models of and for English Society

Source 2.4 Jack P. Greene, The Chesapeake as a Model of and For English Society, 1988 Source 2.5 Alan Taylor, New England Puritans Develop Anglo-American Ideals, 2001

Dissenters Challenge Puritan Authority

Wars in Old and New England

Conclusion: European Empires in North America

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 2

King Philip’s War

Source 2.6 William Nahaton, Petition to Free an Indian Slave, 1675 Source 2.7 Benjamin Church, A Visit with Awashonks, Sachem of the Sakonnet,1716 Source 2.8 John Easton, A Relation of the Indian War, 1675 Source 2.9 Edward Randolph, Report on the War, 1676 Source 2.10 Mary Rowlandson, Narrative of Captivity, 1682

Chapter 3

Colonial America amid Global Change, 1680–1754

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

William Moraley Jr. and Eliza Lucas

Europeans Expand Their Claims

English Colonies Grow and Multiply

The Pueblo Revolt and Spain’s Fragile Empire

France Seeks Land and Control

European Wars and American Consequences

Colonial Conflicts and Indian Alliances

Indians Resist European Encroachment

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 3.1 The Tuscarora Appeal to the Pennsylvania Government, 1710

Conflicts on the Southern Frontier

The Benefits and Costs of Empire

Colonial Traders Join Global Networks

Imperial Policies Focus on Profits

The Atlantic Slave Trade

Seaport Cities and Consumer Cultures

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

The Middle Passage

Source 3.2 Plan of a Slave Ship, 1794

Source 3.3 The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789

Labor in North America

Finding Work in the Colonies

Coping with Economic Distress

Rural Americans Face Changing Conditions

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Individualism and Community in Colonial North America

Source 3.4 James T. Lemon, Individualism Flourishes in Pennsvylvania , 1972

Source 3.5 James A. Henretta, Ethnic and Religious Bonds Foster Community, 1978

Slavery Takes Hold in the South

Africans Resist Their Enslavement

Conclusion: Changing Fortunes in British North America

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 3

Tobacco and Slaves

Source 3.6 Virginia Slave Laws, 1662 and 1667 Source 3.7 Joseph Ball Instructs His Nephew on Managing Enslaved Workers, 1743 Source 3.8 Penny Print of Enslaved Blacks and Plantation Owner, c. 1750 Source 3.9 Richard Corbin Describes How to Become a Successful Planter, 1759 Source 3.10 Lieutenant Governor William Gooch to the Board of Trade, London, 1729

Chapter 4

Religious Strife and Social Upheavals, 1680–1750

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

Gilbert Tennent and Sarah Grosvenor

An Ungodly Society?

The Rise of Religious Anxieties

Cries of Witchcraft

Family and Household Dynamics

Women’s Changing Status

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 4.1 Abigail Faulkner Appeals Her Conviction for Witchcraft, 1692

Working Families

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Elite Women’s Lives in the North American Colonies

Source 4.2 Isaac Royall and His Family, 1741

Source 4.3 Eliza Lucas, Letter to Miss Bartlett, London, c. 1742

Reproduction and Women’s Roles

The Limits of Patriarchal Order

Diversity and Competition in Colonial Society

Population Growth and Economic Competition

Increasing Diversity

Expansion and Conflict

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Finding a Middle Ground in New France

Source 4.4 Richard White, Cultural Accommodation on the Middle Ground, 1991

Source 4.5 Brett Rushforth, Indian Slavery and Accommodation, 2014

Religious Awakenings

The Roots of the Great Awakening

An Outburst of Revivals

Religious Dissension

Political Awakenings

Changing Political Relations

Dissent and Protest

Transforming Urban Politics

Conclusion: A Divided Society

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 4

Awakening Religious Tensions

Source 4.6 Benjamin Franklin, On George Whitefield, the Great Revivalist, 1739 Source 4.7 Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, 1741 Source 4.8 Newspaper Report on James Davenport, 1743 Source 4.9 George Whitefield Preaching, c. 1760 Source 4.10 Sarah Osborn, Letter to Reverend Joseph Fish, February 28, 1767

Chapter 5

War and Empire, 1754–1774

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

George Washington and Pontiac

Imperial Conflicts and Indian Wars, 1754–1763

The Opening Battles

A Shift to Global War

The Costs of Victory

Battles and Boundaries on the Frontier

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 5.1 Minavavana, Speech to Fur Trader Alexander Henry, 1761

Conflicts over Land and Labor Escalate

Postwar British Policies and Colonial Unity

Common Grievances

Forging Ties across the Colonies

Great Britain Seeks Greater Control

Resistance to Britain Intensifies

The Stamp Act Inspires Coordinated Resistance

The Townshend Act

The Boston Massacre

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Protesting the Stamp Act

Source 5.2 London Merchants Petition to Repeal the Stamp Act, 1766

Source 5.3 The Repeal, 1766

Continuing Conflicts at Home

Tea and Widening Resistance

The Continental Congress and Colonial Unity

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Colonial Identities in Eighteenth Century British North America

Source 5.4 Gordon Wood, Britain’s Influence on Colonial Identities, 1993

Source 5.5 Jon Butler, American Influences on Colonial Identities , 2000

Conclusion: Liberty within Empire

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 5

The Boston Massacre

Source 5.6 Deposition of William Wyatt, March 7, 1770 Source 5.7 Account of Boston Massacre Funeral Procession, March 12, 1770 Source 5.8 Paul Revere, Etching of the Boston Massacre, 1770 Source 5.9 Account of Captain Thomas Preston, June 25, 1770 Source 5.10 John Adams, Defense of the British Soldiers at Trial, October 1770

Chapter 6

The American Revolution, 1775–1783

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

Thomas Paine and Elizabeth Freeman

The Question of Independence

Armed Conflict Erupts

Building a Continental Army

Reasons for Caution and for Action

Declaring Independence

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 6.1 Thomas Paine, Common Sense, January 1776

Choosing Sides

Recruiting Supporters

Choosing Neutrality

Committing to Independence

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

African Americans in New York City Amid the Upheavals of 1776

Source 6.2 Slaves Destroy Statue of King George III in New York City, 1776

Source 6.3 A Fire Burns British-Occupied New York City, September 1776

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Americans Decide to Revolt against British Rule

Source 6.4 Bernard Bailyn, The Importance of Ideas, 1967

Source 6.5 Timothy H. Breen, Insurgents Mobilize, 2010

Fighting for Independence, 1776–1777

British Troops Gain Early Victories

Patriots Prevail in New Jersey

A Critical Year of Warfare

Patriots Gain Critical Assistance

Surviving on the Home Front

Governing in Revolutionary Times

Colonies Become States

Patriots Divide over Slavery

France Allies with the Patriots

Raising Armies and Funds

Indian and Patriots Battle for Land

Conflicts Escalate on the Frontier

Winning the War and the Peace, 1778–1783

War Rages in the South

An Uncertain Peace

A Surprising Victory

Conclusion: Legacies of the Revolution

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 6

Women in the Revolution

Source 6.6 Christian Barnes, Letter to Elizabeth Inman, April 29, 1775 Source 6.7 Abigail Adams, Letter to John Adams, March 31, 1776 Source 6.8 Mary Brant, Letter to Capt. Daniel Claus, Montreal, 5 October 1779 Source 6.9 Esther De Berdt Reed, The Sentiments of an American Woman, 1780 Source 6.10 Elizabeth Mum Bett Freeman, 1811

Chapter 7

Forging a New Nation, 1783–1800

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

Daniel Shays and Alexander Hamilton

Financial, Frontier, and Foreign Problems

Continental Officers Threaten Confederation

Indians, Land, and the Northwest Ordinance

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 7.1 United Indian Nations Council, Message to Congress, 1786

Depression and Debt

On the Political Margins

Separating Church and State

African Americans Struggle for Rights

Women Seek Wider Roles

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Women and Free Blacks Claim Rights in the Nation

Source 7.2 Judith Sargent Murray, On the Equality of the Sexes, 1790

Source 7.3 Petition from Free Blacks of Charleston, 1791

Indebted Farmers Fuel Political Crises

Reframing the American Government

The Constitutional Convention of 1787

Americans Battle over Ratification

Organizing the Federal Government

Hamilton Forges an Economic Agenda

Years of Crisis, 1792–1796

Foreign Trade and Foreign Wars

Disease and Dissent

Further Conflicts on the Frontier

The First Party System

The Adams Presidency

The Election of 1800

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Partisan Campaigning in the Election of 1800

Source 7.4 Eric Burns, Federalists Attack Thomas Jefferson, 2006

Source 7.5 John Ferling, Democratic-Republicans Attack John Adams, 2013

Conclusion: A Young Nation Comes of Age

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 7

Debating the Constitution in New York State

Source 7.6 James Madison, Federalist 10, The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection, November 1787 Source 7.7 Melancton Smith, Antifederalist Argument at the New York State Convention, June 1788 Source 7.8 Alexander Hamilton, Federalist Argument at the New York State Convention, June 1788 Source 7.9 John Williams, Antifederalist Argument at the New York State Convention, June 1788 Source 7.10 The Eleventh Pillar of the Great National Dome, 1788

Chapter 8

The Early Republic, 1790–1820

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

Parker Cleaveland and Sacagawea

The Dilemmas of National Identity

Education for a New Nation

Literary and Cultural Developments

Religious Renewal

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 8.1 Samuel Jennings, Liberty Displaying the Arts and Sciences, 1792

The Racial Limits of American Culture

A New Capital for a New Nation

Extending Federal Power

A New Administration Faces Challenges

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

White Responses to Black Rebellion

Source 8.2 Thomas Jefferson, Letter to U.S. Minister to Great Britain Rufus King, July 1802 Source 8.3 Leonora Sansay, Letter to Aaron Burr, November 1802

The Louisiana Territory and Indian Societies

The Supreme Court Extends Its Reach

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Religion and Politics in the Early Republic

Source 8.4 Nathan O. Hatch, Religion as a Democratizing Force, 1989

Source 8.5 Amanda Porterfield, Religion Sows Doubt and Nurtures Partisanship, 2012

Democratic-Republicans Expand Federal Powers

Remaking America’s Economic Character

Native Lands and American Migrations

Technology Reshapes Agriculture and Industry

Transforming Domestic Production

Technology, Cotton, and Slaves

Conclusion: New Identities and New Challenges

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 8

The Corps of Discovery: Paeans to Peace and Instruments of War

Source 8.6 William Clark, Journal, October 12, 1804 Source 8.7 Charles McKenzie, Narrative of a Fur Trader, November 1804 Source 8.8 William Clark, Journal, November 18, 1804 Source 8.9 William Clark, Journal, January 28, 1805, and Meriwether Lewis, February 1, 1805 Source 8.10 Meriwether Lewis, Journal, August 20, 1805

Chapter 9

Defending and Redefining the Nation, 1809–1832

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

Dolley Madison and John Ross

Conflicts at Home and Abroad

Tensions at Sea and on the Frontier

War with Britain and their Indian Allies

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 9.1 Tecumseh, Speech to William Henry Harrison, 1810

National Expansion and Regional Economies

Governments Fuel Economic Growth

Americans Expand the Nation’s Borders

Regional Economic Development

Economic and Political Crises

The Panic of 1819

Slavery in Missouri

The Expansion and Limits of American Democracy

Expanding Voting Rights

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Protesting the Missouri Compromise

Source 9.2 Timothy Claimright, Maine Not to be Coupled with the Missouri Question, 1820 Source 9.3 Thomas Jefferson, Letter to John Holmes, 1820

Racist Restrictions and Racial Violence

Political Realignments

The Presidential Election of 1828

Jacksonian Politics in Action

A Democratic Spirit?

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Expanding American Democracy for Whom?

Source 9.4 Alexander Keyssar, Broadening the Franchise, 2000

Source 9.5 James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, The Limits of Democratic Expansion, 1997

Confrontations over Tariffs and the Bank

Contesting Indian Removal

Conclusion: The Nation Faces New Challenges

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 9

The Cherokee Engage White America

Source 9.6 Women’s Petition to the Cherokee National Council, June 30, 1818 Source 9.7 Sequoyah’s Cherokee Syllabary, 1821 Source 9.8 Cherokee Constitution, 1827 Source 9.9 Nancy Reese, Letter to Reverend Fayette Shepherd, December 25, 1828 Source 9.10 John Ross, On the Treaty of New Echota, 1836

Chapter 10

Social and Cultural Ferment in the North, 1820–1850

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

Charles Grandison Finney and Amy Kirby Post

The Market Revolution

Creating an Urban Landscape

The Lure of Urban Life

Roots of Urban Disorder

The New Middle Class

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 10.1 1850 U.S. Census of the Isaac and Amy Post Household

The Rise of Industry

Factory Towns and Women Workers

The Decline of Craft Work and Workingmen’s Responses

The Panic of 1837

Saving the Nation from Sin

The Second Great Awakening

New Visions of Faith and Reform

Transcendentalism

Organizing for Change

Varieties of Reform

The Problem of Poverty

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

How Can We Help the Poor?

Source 10.2 Matthew Carey, Appeal to the Wealthy of the Land, 1833

Source 10.3 Emily G. Kempshall, Letter to Rochester Female Charitable Society, 1838

The Temperance Movement

Utopian Communities

Abolitionism Expands and Divides

The Beginnings of the Antislavery Movement

Abolition Gains Ground and Enemies

Abolitionism and Women’s Rights

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Religion, Race, and the Call to End Slavery

Source 10.4 Lawrence J. Friedman, The Religious Roots of Immediate Abolition, 1982

Source 10.5 Manisha Sinha, The Black Roots of Immediate Abolition, 2016

The Rise of Antislavery Parties

Conclusion: From the North to the Nation

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 10

Religious Faith and Women’s Activism

Source 10.6 Charles G. Finney, An Influential Woman Converts, 1830 Source 10.7 Elizabeth Emery and Mary P. Abbott, Founding a Female Anti-Slavery Society, 1836 Source 10.8 Maria Stewart, On Religion and the Pure Principles of Morality, 1831 Source 10.9 Congregational Pastoral Letter, 1837 Source 10.10 Sarah Grimké, Response to the Pastoral Letter, 1837

Chapter 11

Slavery Expands South and West, 1830–1850

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

José Antonio Menchaca and Solomon Northrup

Planters Expand the Slave System

A Plantation Society Develops in the South

Urban Life in the Slave South

The Consequences of Slavery’s Expansion

Slave Society and Culture

Enslaved Labor Fuels the Economy

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 11.1 Edward Strutt Abdy, Description of Washington D.C., Slave Pen, 1833

Developing an African American Culture

Resistance and Rebellion

Planters Tighten Control

Harsher Treatment for Southern Blacks

White Southerners without Slaves

Planters Seek to Unify Southern Whites

Democrats Face Political and Economic Crises

The Battle for Texas

Indians Resist Removal

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Two Views on Texas Independence

Source 11.2 Colonel William Travis, Appeal for Reinforcements, March 3, 1836

Source 11.3 Benjamin Lundy, The War in Texas, 1836

Van Buren and the Panic of 1837

The Whigs Win the White House

The National Government Looks to the West

Expanding to Oregon and Texas

Pursuing War with Mexico

Debates over Slavery Intensify

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Families in Slavery

Source 11.4 Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, Planters Shape Slave

Families, 1974

Source 11.5 Deborah Gray White, The Roles of Enslaved Women, 1985

Conclusion: Geographical Expansion and Political Division

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 11

Lives in Slavery

Source 11.6 William Wells Brown, Memories of Childhood Source 11.7 Harriet Jacobs, A Girl Threatened by Sexual Exploitation Source 11.8 Solomon Northup, Endless Labor and Constant Fear Source 11.9 Friedrich Shulz, The Slave Market Source 11.10 Mary Reynolds, Recalling Work, Punishment, and Faith c. 1850s

Chapter 12

Imperial Ambitions and Sectional Crises, 1842–1861

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

John C. Frémont and Dred Scott

Claiming the West

Traveling the Overland Trail

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 12.1 Elizabeth Smith Geer, Oregon Trail Diary, 1847

The Gold Rush

A Crowded Land

Expansion and the Politics of Slavery

California and the Compromise of 1850

The Fugitive Slave Act Inspires Northern Protest

Pierce Encourages U.S. Expansion

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

The Fugitive Slave Law Contested

Source 12.2 William C. Nell, Meeting of Colored Citizens of Boston, September 30, 1850 Source 12.3 President Millard Fillmore, Proclamation 56 Calling on Citizens to Assist in the Recapture of a Fugitive Slave, February 18, 1851

Sectional Crises Intensify

Popularizing Antislavery Sentiment

The Kansas-Nebraska Act Stirs Dissent

Bleeding Kansas and the Election of 1856

The Dred Scott Decision

From Sectional Crisis to Southern Secession

Cortina’s War and John Brown’s Raid

The Election of 1860

From Secession to War

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

White Southerners Decide To Secede

Source 12.4 Michael P. Johnson, Georgians Choose Secession, 1977

Source 12.5 J. Mills Thornton, Alabamans Move toward Secession, 1978

Conclusion: A Nation Divided

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 12

Debating Secession

Source 12.6 Robert Toombs, Supporting Secession in Georgia, November 13, 1860 Source 12.7 Waitman T. Willey, Speech at Virginia State Secession Convention, March 4, 1861 Source 12.8 Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, Jefferson Davis about to become Provisional President of the Confederacy, March 16, 1861 Source 12.9 Alexander Stephens, Cornerstone Speech, March 21, 1861 Source 12.10 Mary Boykin Chesnut, Diary entries, April 4-12, 1861

Chapter 13

Civil War, 1861–1865

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

Frederick Douglass and Rose O’Neal Greenhow

The Nation at War, 1861-1862

Both Sides Prepare for War

Wartime Roles of African Americans, Indians, and Mexican Americans

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 13.1 General Benjamin Butler, Enslaved Blacks Flee to Union Army Camps, May 27, 1861

Union Politicians Consider Emancipation

War Transforms the North and the South

Life and Death on the Battlefield

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Photographers Bring the War Home

Source 13.2 Union Soldiers in Camp, c. 1863

Source 13.3 Battlefield Dead at Antietam, 1862

The Northern Economy Expands

Urbanization and Industrialization in the South

Women Aid the War Effort

Dissent and Protest in the Midst of War

The Tide of War Turns, 1863–1865

Key Victories for the Union

African Americans Contribute to Victory

The Final Battles of a Hard War

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Why Union Soldiers Fought the Civil War

Source 13.4 Chandra Manning, The Fight Against Slavery (2007)

Source 13.5 Gary Gallagher, The Fight to Save the Union (2011)

The War Comes to an End

Conclusion: An Uncertain Future

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 13

Firsthand Accounts of the Civil War

Source 13.6 Frederick Spooner, Letter to His Brother Henry, April 30, 1861 Source 13.7 John Hines, Letter to His Parents, April 22, 1862 Source 13.8 Suzy King Taylor, Caring for the Thirty-third U.S. Colored Troops, 1863 Source 13.9 Thomas Freeman, Letter to His Brother-in-Law, March 26, 1864 Source 13.10 Eliza Frances Andrews, On Union Prisoners of War, 1865

Chapter 14

Emancipation and Reconstruction, 1863–1877

COMPARING AMERICAN HISTORIES

Jefferson Long and Andrew Johnson

Emancipation

African Americans Embrace Freedom

Reuniting Families Torn Apart by Slavery

GUIDED PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Source 14.1 Freedpeople Petition for Land, 1865

Freedom to Learn

Freedom to Worship and the Leadership Role of Black Churches

National Reconstruction

Abraham Lincoln Plans for Reunification

Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction

Johnson and Congressional Resistance

Congressional Reconstruction

COMPARATIVE PRIMARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Debating the Freedmen’s Bureau

Source 14.2 Colonel Eliphalet Whittlesey, Report on the Freedman’s Bureau, 1865

Source 14.3 Democratic Flier Opposing the Freedman’s Bureau Bill, 1866

The Struggle for Universal Suffrage

Remaking the South

Whites Reconstruct the South

Black Political Participation and Economic Opportunities

COMPARATIVE SECONDARY SOURCE ANALYSIS

Race and Reconstruction

Source 14.4 William A. Dunning, Radical Reconstruction (1907)

Source 14.5 John Hope Franklin, The South’s New Leaders (1961)

White Resistance to Congressional Reconstruction

The Unraveling of Reconstruction

The Republican Retreat

Congressional and Judicial Retreat

The Presidential Compromise of 1876

Conclusion: The Legacies of Reconstruction

Chapter Review

PRIMARY SOURCE PROJECT 14

Testing and Contesting Freedom

Source 14.6 Mississippi Black Code, 1865 Source 14.7 Richard H. Cain, Federal Aid for Land Purchase, 1868 Source 14.8 Willis B. Bocock and Black Laborers, Sharecropping Agreement, 1870 Source 14.9 Ellen Parton, Testimony on Klan Violence, 1871 Source 14.10 Thomas Nast, Colored Rule in a Reconstructed (?) State, 1874

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