Environmental Justice Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy

by
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2005-11-03
Publisher(s): Oxford University Press
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Summary

Shrader-Frechette offers a rigorous philosophical discussion of environmental justice. Explaining fundamental ethical concepts such as equality, property rights, procedural justice, free informed consent, intergenerational equity, and just compensation--and then bringing them to bear onreal-world social issues--she shows how many of these core concepts have been compromised for a large segment of the global population, including Appalachians, African-Americans, workers in hazardous jobs, and indigenous people in developing nations. She argues that burdens like pollution andresource depletion need to be apportioned more equally, and that there are compelling ethical grounds for remedying our environmental problems. She also argues that those affected by environmental problems must be included in the process of remedying those problems; that all citizens have a duty toengage in activism on behalf of environmental justice; and that in a democracy it is the people, not the government, that are ultimately responsible for fair use of the environment.

Author Biography


Kristin Shrader-Frechette is O'Neill Family Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences and the Department of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 3(20)
Environmentalism and Biocentrism
4(1)
From Environmentalism to Environmental Justice
5(1)
Understanding Environmental Injustice
6(12)
Overview of the Book
18(5)
2 Distributive Justice, Participative Justice, and the Principle of Prima Facie Political Equality 23(26)
Overview
24(1)
The Principle of Prima Facie Political Equality (PPFPE) and Distributive Justice
24(3)
The Principle of Prima Facie Political Equality and Participative Justice
27(2)
Objections to the Principle of Prima Facie Political Equality
29(5)
How Careless Use of Science Can Encourage Environmental Injustice
34(2)
Federal versus Local Control of Siting: Balancing Equity and Utility
36(5)
A Case Study
41(6)
Conclusions
47(2)
3 Appalachians, Access to Land, and Procedural Justice 49(22)
Overview
50(1)
Setting the Scene for the First Argument: The California Farmer
51(2)
Another Instance of Environmental Injustice: The Appalachian Farmer
53(2)
Procedural Justice and End-State Principles
55(1)
A Procedurally Based Argument for Limiting Property Rights in Resources
56(1)
Resource Transactions, Voluntariness, and the Lockean Proviso
56 (6)
Suggestions for Limiting Property Rights in Land
62(1)
Objections to the Argument
63(1)
A Second Argument for Limiting Property Rights in Resources
64(1)
Objections to the Second Argument
65(3)
Conclusion
68(3)
4 African Americans, LULUs, and Free Informed Consent 71(24)
Reverend Coleman and the South Side
71(3)
Overview
74(1)
A Case Study: Homer, Louisiana
74(3)
The Louisiana Siting Was Not Ethically Justified
77(7)
Objections and Replies: An Environmentally Just Energy Policy
84(6)
Objections and Replies: No Economic Need for the Plant
90(2)
Postscript
92(3)
5 Equity and Duties to Future Generations: The Case of Yucca Mountain 95(22)
Overview
95(1)
Prima Facie Arguments for Equal Treatment
96 (1)
Utilitarian Objections
97(3)
Duties to Future Generations
100(5)
Consent and Future Persons
105(8)
Practical and Legal Considerations Affecting Justice for Future People
113(3)
Conclusions
116(1)
6 Native Peoples and the Problem of Paternalism 117(18)
Colonialism and the Exploitation of Indigenous People: The Case of Shell Oil
118(3)
Overview
121(1)
Paternalism, Consent, and Participative Justice
122(2)
The Mescalero Apache, Paternalism, and Waste Disposal
124(2)
Environmental Justice and the Mescalero
126(2)
Geographical Inequality, Distributive Justice, and the Mescalero
128 (1)
History of the Nuclear Waste Issue
129(2)
Science Relevant to Nuclear Waste Problem
131(1)
Conclusion
132(3)
7 Risky Occupational Environments, the Double Standard, and Just Compensation 135(28)
Overview
136(1)
The Double Standard
137(1)
Historical Background
138(1)
The Theory of the Compensating Wage Differential
139 (9)
Arguments against the CWD
148(4)
A Case Study: Six Hundred Thousand DOE Workers
152 (9)
Conclusions and Alternatives
161(2)
8 Developing Nations, Equal Protection, and the Limits of Moral Heroism 163(22)
Overview
165(1)
The Social Progress Argument
166(1)
The Bloody Loaf Argument
167(4)
The Consent Argument and a Moral Response to It
171(4)
The Economic-Reality Argument and a Moral Response to It
175(2)
Citizens' Responsibilities for Environmental Justice
177 (5)
Conclusion
182(3)
9 Taking Action: Public Responsibility for Environmental Justice 185(22)
Overview
185(1)
Environmental Justice Advocacy
186(1)
The Tilted Playing Field
186(9)
Consequentialist Arguments for Environmental Justice Advocacy
195(2)
Deontological Arguments for Environmental Justice Advocacy
197(1)
Restrictions on Environmental-Justice Advocacy
197(5)
Practical Steps: Working with Nongovernmental Organizations
202 (3)
Conclusion
205(2)
Notes 207(54)
Index 261

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