The Christian Theology Reader, 5th Edition [Rental Edition]

Edition: 5th
Format: Hardcover
Pub. Date: 2019-07-15
Publisher(s): Wiley Rental
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Regarded as the leading text in Christian theology for the last 25 years, Alister E. McGrath’s The Christian Theology Reader is now available in a new 5th edition featuring completely revised and updated content.

  • Brings together more than 350 readings from over 200 sources that chart 2,000 years of Christian history
  • Situates each reading within the appropriate historical and theological context with its own introduction, commentary, and study questions
  • Includes new readings on world Christianity and feminist, liberation, and postcolonial theologies, as well as more selections by female theologians and theologians from the developing world
  • Contains additional pedagogical features, such as new discussion questions and case studies, and a robust website with new videos by the author to aid student learning
  • Designed to function as a stand-alone volume, or as a companion to Christian Theology: An Introduction, 6th edition, for a complete overview of the subject

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Approaching the Readings xvii

To the Student: How to Use This Book xix

To the Teacher: How to Use This Book xxi

Video Resources for This Textbook xxiii

The Development of Christian Theology: An Historical Overview xxv

Acknowledgments xxxi

1 Getting Started: Preliminaries 1

Introduction 2

1.1 Justin Martyr on Philosophy and Theology 5

1.2 Clement of Alexandria on Philosophy and Theology 6

1.3 Tertullian on the Relationship between Philosophy and Heresy 7

1.4 Augustine of Hippo on Philosophy and Theology 9

1.5 The Nicene Creed 10

1.6 The Apostles’ Creed 12

1.7 Anselm of Canterbury’s Proof for the Existence of God 13

1.8 Gaunilo’s Reply to Anselm’s Argument 14

1.9 Thomas Aquinas on Proofs for the Existence of God 16

1.10 Thomas Aquinas on the Principle of Analogy 19

1.11 William of Ockham on Proofs for the Existence of God 21

1.12 Martin Luther on the Theology of the Cross 23

1.13 John Calvin on the Nature of Faith 24

1.14 The Heidelberg Catechism on Images of God 26

1.15 John Locke on the Formation of the Concept of God 27

1.16 Rene Descartes on the Existence of God 28

1.17 Blaise Pascal on Proofs for the Existence of God 29

1.18 Blaise Pascal on the Hiddenness of God 31

1.19 Immanuel Kant on Anselm’s Ontological Argument 32

1.20 Soren Kierkegaard on the Subjectivity of Truth 33

1.21 The First Vatican Council on Faith and Reason 34

1.22 John Henry Newman on the Grounds of Faith 36

1.23 Adolf von Harnack on the Origins of Dogma 38

1.24 Karl Barth on the Nature and Task of Theology 39

1.25 Ludwig Wittgenstein on Analogy 41

1.26 Ludwig Wittgenstein on Proofs for the Existence of God 42

1.27 Vladimir Lossky on Apophatic Approaches to Theology 43

1.28 Dietrich Bonhoeffer on God in a Secular World 45

1.29 Paul Tillich on the Method of Correlation 47

1.30 Ian T. Ramsey on the Language of Christian Doctrine 49

1.31 Sallie McFague on Metaphor in Theology 50

1.32 Gustavo Gutierrez on Theology as Critical Reflection 52

1.33 Brian A. Gerrish on Accommodation in Calvin’s Theology 54

1.34 George Lindbeck on Postliberal Approaches to Doctrine 55

1.35 Dumitru Stăniloae on the Nature of Dogma 58

1.36 Kevin Vanhoozer on the Challenge of Postmodernity for Theology 60

1.37 John Polkinghorne on Motivated Belief in Theology 62

1.38 Pope Francis on Faith and Truth in Theology and the Church 64

For Further Reading 66

2 The Sources of Theology 67

Introduction 68

2.1 Melito of Sardis on Typology and Old Testament Interpretation 71

2.2 Irenaeus of Lyons on the Role of Tradition 73

2.3 Hippolytus on Typological Interpretation of Scripture 74

2.4 Clement of Alexandria on the Fourfold Interpretation of Scripture 75

2.5 Tertullian on Tradition and Apostolic Succession 76

2.6 Origen on the Three Ways of Reading Scripture 77

2.7 Cyril of Jerusalem on the Role of Creeds 78

2.8 Augustine of Hippo on the Literal and Allegorical Senses of Scripture 79

2.9 Jerome on the Role of Scripture 80

2.10 Vincent of Lerins on the Role of Tradition 82

2.11 Bernard of Clairvaux on the Allegorical Sense of Scripture 83

2.12 Stephen Langton on the Moral Sense of Scripture 84

2.13 Ludolf of Saxony on Reading Scripture Imaginatively 85

2.14 Jacques Lefevre d’Etaples on the Senses of Scripture 86

2.15 Martin Luther on the Fourfold Sense of Scripture 88

2.16 Martin Luther on Revelation in Christ 89

2.17 John Calvin on the Natural Knowledge of God 91

2.18 John Calvin on the Relationship between the Old and New Testaments 92

2.19 The Council of Trent on Scripture and Tradition 93

2.20 The Gallic Confession on the Canon of Scripture 94

2.21 The Belgic Confession on the Book of Nature 96

2.22 Melchior Cano on the Church as an Interpreter of Scripture 97

2.23 The Formula of Concord on Scripture and the Theologians 98

2.24 Robert Bellarmine on Protestant Biblical Interpretation 99

2.25 The King James Translators on Biblical Translation 100

2.26 Sir Thomas Browne on the Two Books of Revelation 102

2.27 Francis White on Scripture and Tradition 104

2.28 Jonathan Edwards on the Beauty of Creation 105

2.29 William Paley on the Wisdom of the Creation 106

2.30 Johann Adam Mohler on Living Tradition 108

2.31 John Henry Newman on the Role of Tradition 110

2.32 Charles Hodge on the Inspiration of Scripture 113

2.33 Gerard Manley Hopkins on God’s Grandeur in Nature 114

2.34 Charles Gore on the Relationship between Dogma and the New Testament 115

2.35 James Orr on the Centrality of Revelation for Christianity 117

2.36 Wilhelm Herrmann on the Nature of Revelation 118

2.37 Karl Barth on Revelation as God’s Self-Disclosure 121

2.38 Emil Brunner on the Personal Nature of Revelation 123

2.39 Rudolf Bultmann on Demythologization and Biblical Interpretation 124

2.40 Pope Pius XII on the Authority of the Vulgate Translation of the Bible 126

2.41 Austin Farrer on Demythologization, History, and Biblical Interpretation 127

2.42 Gerhard von Rad on Typology and Biblical Interpretation 129

2.43 Karl Rahner on the Authority of Scripture 131

2.44 Brevard S. Childs on the Canonical Interpretation of Scripture 133

2.45 Phyllis Trible on Feminist Biblical Interpretation 134

2.46 John Meyendorff on Living Tradition 137

2.47 James I. Packer on the Nature of Revelation 138

2.48 Thomas F. Torrance on Karl Barth’s Criticism of Natural Theology 140

2.49 The Catechism of the Catholic Church on Scripture and Tradition 143

2.50 N. T. Wright on the Authority of Biblical Narratives 145

2.51 Alister E. McGrath on a Christian Approach to Natural≈Theology 147

For Further Reading 148

3 The Doctrine of God 150

Introduction 151

3.1 Athenagoras of Athens on the Christian God 155

3.2 Irenaeus of Lyons on the Origin of Evil 156

3.3 Irenaeus of Lyons on the Trinity 157

3.4 Tertullian on Creation from Preexistent Matter 158

3.5 Origen on Creation from Preexistent Matter 159

3.6 Origen on the Relationship between God and Evil 160

3.7 Gregory of Nyssa on Human Analogies of the Trinity 161

3.8 Basil of Caesarea on the Work of the Holy Spirit 163

3.9 Gregory of Nazianzus on the Gradual Revelation of the Trinity 165

3.10 Athanasius of Alexandria on the Holy Spirit and the Trinity 166

3.11 Hilary of Poitiers on the Trinity 167

3.12 Augustine of Hippo on the Trinity 168

3.13 Augustine of Hippo on the Relationship between God and Evil 172

3.14 Epiphanius of Constantia on Sabellianism 173

3.15 Cyril of Alexandria on the Role of the Holy Spirit 174

3.16 John of Damascus on the Holy Spirit 175

3.17 The Eleventh Council of Toledo on the Trinity 176

3.18 Anselm of Canterbury on the Compassion of God 177

3.19 Richard of St. Victor on Love within the Trinity 178

3.20 Alexander of Hales on the Suffering of God in Christ 180

3.21 Thomas Aquinas on Divine Omnipotence 181

3.22 Bonaventure of Bagnoregio on the Origin of Evil 182

3.23 Julian of Norwich on God as Our Mother 183

3.24 William of Ockham on the Two Powers of God 184

3.25 Thomas a Kempis on the Limits of Trinitarian Speculation 185

3.26 John Calvin on the Providence of God 186

3.27 Benedict Spinoza on the Impassibility of God 188

3.28 F. D. E. Schleiermacher on the Trinity 189

3.29 Karl Barth on the “Otherness” of God 190

3.30 Jurgen Moltmann on the Suffering of God 191

3.31 Hans Urs von Balthasar on the Glory of God 193

3.32 Leonardo Boff on the Trinity as Good News for the Poor 195

3.33 Robert Jenson on the Trinity 197

3.34 Hans Kung on the Immutability of God 200

3.35 Eberhard Jungel on the Crucified God 202

3.36 Jacques Ellul on the Theology of Icons 203

3.37 Walter Kasper on the Rationality of the Trinity 205

3.38 Paul Jewett on Noninclusive Language and the Trinity 207

3.39 John Milbank on the Trinity in a Postmodern Age 209

3.40 Elizabeth A. Johnson on Male and Female Images of God 211

3.41 Anne Carr on Feminism and the Maleness of God 213

3.42 Sarah Coakley on Social Models of the Trinity 215

3.43 David Bentley Hart on God and Evil 217

For Further Reading 219

4 The Person of Christ 221

Introduction 222

4.1 Ignatius of Antioch on Docetism 225

4.2 Irenaeus of Lyons on Gnosticism in Christology 226

4.3 Tertullian on Patripassianism 227

4.4 Tertullian on the Incarnation 227

4.5 Novatian on the Divinity of Christ 229

4.6 Origen on the Two Natures of Christ 230

4.7 Arius on the Status of Christ 231

4.8 Athanasius of Alexandria on the Two Natures of Christ 232

4.9 Apollinarius of Laodicea on the Person of Christ 233

4.10 Gregory of Nazianzus on Apollinarianism 234

4.11 Theodore of Mopsuestia on the “Union of Good Pleasure” 235

4.12 Nestorius on the Term Theotokos 236

4.13 Cyril of Alexandria on the Incarnation 238

4.14 Pope Leo the Great on the Two Natures of Christ 239

4.15 The Chalcedonian Definition of the Christian Faith 241

4.16 John of Damascus on the Incarnation and Icons 243

4.17 Honorius of Autun on the Cause of the Incarnation 244

4.18 Thomas Aquinas on the Necessity of the Incarnation 245

4.19 Gregory Palamas on the Divine Condescension in the Incarnation 246

4.20 Martin Luther’s Critique of Nestorianism 247

4.21 Francois Turrettini on the Threefold Office of Christ 249

4.22 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing on the Ditch of History 250

4.23 F. D. E. Schleiermacher on the “Natural Heresies” of Christianity 252

4.24 Martin Kahler on the Historical Jesus 254

4.25 George Tyrrell on the Christ of Liberal Protestantism 257

4.26 Albert Schweitzer on the Failure of the “Quest of the Historical Jesus” 259

4.27 G. K. Chesterton on the Incarnation, Myth, and Reason 260

4.28 P. T. Forsyth on the Person of Christ 262

4.29 Dorothy L. Sayers on Christology and Dogma 263

4.30 Paul Tillich on the Dispensability of the Historical Jesus 264

4.31 Wolfhart Pannenberg on the Indispensability of the Historical Jesus 266

4.32 Thomas F. Torrance on the Incarnation and Soteriology 268

4.33 Rosemary Radford Ruether on the Maleness of Christ 270

4.34 Morna D. Hooker on Chalcedon and the New Testament 273

4.35 N. T. Wright on History and Christology 275

4.36 Janet Martin Soskice on Christ’s Significance for Women 278

For Further Reading 280

5 Salvation in Christ 281

Introduction 282

5.1 Irenaeus of Lyons on the “Ransom” Theory of the Atonement 285

5.2 Irenaeus of Lyons on “Recapitulation” in Christ 286

5.3 Clement of Alexandria on Christ’s Death as an Example of Love 287

5.4 Athanasius of Alexandria on the Death of Christ 288

5.5 Athanasius of Alexandria on the Relationship between Christology and Soteriology 289

5.6 Pseudo-Hippolytus on the Cosmic Dimensions of the Cross 290

5.7 Rufinus of Aquileia on the “Fish-Hook” Theory of the Atonement 291

5.8 An Ancient Liturgy on Christ’s Descent into Hell 291

5.9 Theodoret of Cyrrhus on the Death of Christ 292

5.10 Augustine of Hippo on Redemption in Christ 293

5.11 Maximus the Confessor on the Economy of Salvation 294

5.12 Simeon the New Theologian on Salvation as Deification 296

5.13 Anselm of Canterbury on the Atonement 296

5.14 Peter Abelard on the Love of Christ in Redemption 299

5.15 Hugh of St. Victor on the Death of Christ 300

5.16 Rupert of Deutz on the Incarnation as God’s Response to Sin 301

5.17 Thomas Aquinas on the Satisfaction of Christ 302

5.18 Nicolas Cabasilas on the Death of Christ 303

5.19 John Calvin on the Grounds of Redemption 304

5.20 The Socinian Critique of the Idea of Satisfaction 305

5.21 John Donne on the Work of Christ 307

5.22 George Herbert on the Death of Christ and Redemption 308

5.23 Charles Wesley on Salvation in Christ 308

5.24 F. D. E. Schleiermacher on Christ as a Charismatic Leader 309

5.25 F. D. E. Schleiermacher on Christology and Soteriology 312

5.26 Charles Gore on the Relationship between Christology and Soteriology 313

5.27 Hastings Rashdall on Christ as a Moral Example 314

5.28 Gustaf Aulen on the Classic Theory of the Atonement 316

5.29 Vladimir Lossky on Redemption as Deification 319

5.30 Bernard Lonergan on the Intelligibility of Redemption 320

5.31 Wolfhart Pannenberg on Soteriological Approaches to Christology 322

5.32 James I. Packer on Penal Substitution 324

5.33 Dorothee Solle on Suffering and Redemption 325

5.34 Colin E. Gunton on the Language of Atonement 327

5.35 The Catechism of the Catholic Church on the Sacrifice of Christ 329

5.36 Miroslav Volf on the Cross of Christ and Human Violence 330

5.37 Rosemary Radford Ruether on Suffering and Redemption 332

5.38 J. Denny Weaver on Violence in Traditional Approaches to the Atonement 334

For Further Reading 336

6 Human Nature, Sin, and Grace 338

Introduction 339

6.1 Irenaeus of Lyons on Human Progress 342

6.2 Tertullian on Inherited Guilt 342

6.3 Origen on the Image of God 343

6.4 Lactantius on Political Aspects of the Image of God 344

6.5 Ambrose on the Unmerited Character of Salvation 345

6.6 Ambrosiaster on Original Sin 346

6.7 Gregory of Nyssa on Human Longing for God 347

6.8 Augustine of Hippo on the Nature of Predestination 348

6.9 Augustine of Hippo on Fallen Human Nature 349

6.10 Pelagius on Human Responsibility 350

6.11 Pelagius on Human Freedom 351

6.12 The Council of Carthage on Grace 352

6.13 The Second Council of Orange on Grace and Freedom 353

6.14 Hildegard of Bingen on the Creation of Man and Woman 355

6.15 Alan of Lille on Penitence as a Cause of Grace 356

6.16 Francis of Assisi on the Creation 357

6.17 Thomas Aquinas on the Nature of Grace 358

6.18 Mechthild of Magdeburg on Humanity’s Longing for God 360

6.19 Duns Scotus on the Immaculate Conception of Mary 361

6.20 Gregory of Rimini on Predestination 362

6.21 Gabriel Biel on Merit and Justification 362

6.22 Giovanni Pico della Mirandola on Human Nature 364

6.23 Martin Luther on Justifying Faith 365

6.24 Martin Luther on Sin and Grace 366

6.25 Philip Melanchthon on Justification by Faith 368

6.26 John Calvin on Predestination 369

6.27 John Calvin on the Concept of Justification 371

6.28 The Council of Trent on Justification 372

6.29 Theodore Beza on the Causes of Predestination 372

6.30 John Donne on the Bondage of the Human Will 374

6.31 The Westminster Confession of Faith on Predestination 375

6.32 Jonathan Edwards on Original Sin 375

6.33 John Wesley on Justification 377

6.34 John Henry Newman on Original Sin 378

6.35 Karl Barth on Election in Christ 380

6.36 Emil Brunner on Barth’s Doctrine of Election 382

6.37 Reinhold Niebuhr on Original Sin 383

6.38 Valerie C. Saiving on Feminist Approaches to Sin 385

6.39 The Second Vatican Council on Human Nature 387

6.40 Mary Hayter on Human Sexuality and the Image of God 389

6.41 Pope Benedict XVI on the Identity of Humanity 392

For Further Reading 394

7 The Church 395

Introduction 396

7.1 Irenaeus of Lyons on the Function of the Church 399

7.2 Origen on the Church and Salvation 399

7.3 Cyprian of Carthage on the Unity of the Church 400

7.4 Cyril of Jerusalem on the Catholicity of the Church 402

7.5 Petilian of Cirta on the Purity of Ministers 403

7.6 Augustine of Hippo on the Mixed Nature of the Church 404

7.7 Pope Leo the Great on Ministry within the Church 405

7.8 Pope Innocent III on the Church and State 406

7.9 Thomas Aquinas on the Catholicity of the Church 406

7.10 Pope Boniface VIII on Papal Primacy 407

7.11 Jan Hus on the Church 409

7.12 Martin Luther on the Marks of the Church 410

7.13 Martin Luther on Priests and Laity 412

7.14 Philip Melanchthon on the Nature of Catholicity 413

7.15 Sebastian Franck on the True Church 414

7.16 The First Helvetic Confession on the Nature of the Church 415

7.17 John Calvin on the Marks of the Church 416

7.18 Richard Hooker on the Purity of the Church 417

7.19 The Westminster Confession of Faith on the Church 418

7.20 Roger Williams on the Separation of the Church from the World 419

7.21 F. D. E. Schleiermacher on the Church as a Fellowship of Believers 420

7.22 The First Vatican Council on Papal Primacy in the Church 422

7.23 Henry Barclay Swete on the Apostolicity of the Church 424

7.24 The Barmen Confession on the Identity of the Church 427

7.25 Stephen Charles Neill on Holiness and the Mission of the Church 428

7.26 Yves Congar on the Hierarchy of the Church 429

7.27 The Second Vatican Council on the Nature of the Church 431

7.28 John D. Zizioulas on Local and Universal Churches 433

7.29 Avery Dulles on the Meanings of “Catholicity” 434

7.30 Stanley Hauerwas on the Church and the Story of Faith 435

7.31 George Dragas on the Orthodox Concept of the Church 437

7.32 Pope John Paul II on the Laity and Mission 438

7.33 John Webster on the Church and the Gospel 440

For Further Reading 442

8 The Sacraments 443

Introduction 444

8.1 Clement of Alexandria on Faith as Feeding on Christ 447

8.2 Tertullian on the Significance of Water in Baptism 447

8.3 Cyprian of Carthage on Heretical Baptism 449

8.4 Cyril of Jerusalem on the Meaning of Baptism 449

8.5 Cyril of Jerusalem on the Body and Blood of Christ 451

8.6 Hilary of Poitiers on the Effects of Baptism 451

8.7 Gregory of Nazianzus on the Symbolism of Baptism 452

8.8 Augustine of Hippo on Donatist Approaches to the Sacraments 453

8.9 Augustine of Hippo on the “Right to Baptize” 454

8.10 John of Damascus on the Holy Spirit and the Eucharist 455

8.11 Paschasius Radbertus on the Real Presence 456

8.12 Ratramnus of Corbie on the Real Presence 457

8.13 Candidus of Fulda on “This is My Body” 458

8.14 Lanfranc of Bec on the Mystery of the Sacraments 459

8.15 Hugh of St. Victor on the Definition of a Sacrament 460

8.16 Peter Lombard on the Definition of a Sacrament 461

8.17 The Fourth Lateran Council on Baptism and the Eucharist 462

8.18 Thomas Aquinas on Transubstantiation 464

8.19 Martin Luther on the Doctrine of Transubstantiation 465

8.20 Martin Luther on the Bread and Wine as a Testament 466

8.21 Huldrych Zwingli on “This is My Body” 468

8.22 Huldrych Zwingli on the Nature of Sacraments 470

8.23 John Calvin on the Nature of Sacraments 472

8.24 The Council of Trent on Transubstantiation 473

8.25 John Wesley on the Eucharist and Salvation 474

8.26 John Henry Newman on Infant Baptism 475

8.27 The Second Vatican Council on the Eucharist 477

8.28 Edward Schillebeeckx on the Real Presence 479

8.29 The World Council of Churches on Baptism 481

8.30 Alexander Schmemann on the Eucharist 483

8.31 Rowan Williams on the Nature of a Sacrament 485

8.32 Pope John Paul II on the Eucharist as a Sign of Hope 487

For Further Reading 488

9 Christianity and Other Religions 490

Introduction 491

9.1 Justin Martyr on Christianity and Judaism 493

9.2 Ludwig Feuerbach on the Human Origins of Religion 494

9.3 Karl Marx on Feuerbach’s Views on Religion 495

9.4 Karl Barth on Christianity and Religion 496

9.5 C. S. Lewis on Myth in Christianity and Other Faiths 498

9.6 Karl Rahner on Christianity and the Non-Christian Religions 500

9.7 The Second Vatican Council on Non-Christian Religions 503

9.8 Clark Pinnock on Pluralists and Christology 506

9.9 John Hick on Complementary Pluralism 509

9.10 John B. Cobb Jr. on Religious Pluralism 513

9.11 Lesslie Newbigin on the Gospel in a Pluralist Culture 516

9.12 Gavin D’Costa on the Self-Contradictions of Pluralism 519

9.13 Herbert McCabe on Christianity and the Abolition of the Gods 522

9.14 David Ford on Scriptural Reasoning and Interreligious Dialogue 523

9.15 Pope Francis on Evangelism and Interreligious Dialogue 526

For Further Reading 528

10 The Last Things 529

Introduction 530

10.1 Irenaeus of Lyons on the Final Restoration of Creation 532

10.2 Theophilus of Antioch on Conditional Immortality 533

10.3 Tertullian on Hell and Heaven 534

10.4 Tertullian on the Millennium 534

10.5 Origen on the Resurrection Body 535

10.6 Cyprian of Carthage on Paradise as the Christian Homeland 536

10.7 Methodius of Olympus on the Resurrection 537

10.8 Cyril of Jerusalem on Prayers for the Dead 538

10.9 Gregory of Nyssa on the Resurrection Body 539

10.10 John Chrysostom on Prayers for the Dead 540

10.11 Augustine of Hippo on the Christian Hope 540

10.12 Gregory the Great on Purgatory 541

10.13 Peter Lombard on the Appearance of Humanity in Heaven 542

10.14 Pope Benedict XII on Seeing God in Heaven 543

10.15 Catherine of Genoa on Purgatory 544

10.16 John Donne on the Resurrection 545

10.17 Jeremy Taylor on Death and Heaven 546

10.18 Jonathan Edwards on the Reality of Hell 547

10.19 John Wesley on Universal Restoration 549

10.20 C. S. Lewis on the Hope of Heaven 550

10.21 Rudolf Bultmann on the Existential Interpretation of Eschatology 552

10.22 Helmut Thielicke on Ethics and Eschatology 554

10.23 Richard Bauckham on Jurgen Moltmann’s Eschatology 556

10.24 Hans Urs von Balthasar on Hell 558

10.25 The Catechism of the Catholic Church on Heaven 559

10.26 Kathryn Tanner on Eternal Life 561

For Further Reading 563

A Glossary of Theological Terms 565

Sources of Readings 572

For Further Study: Additional Collections of Readings 583

Index 585

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