APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology Volume 1: Foundations, Planning, Measures, and Psychometrics Volume 2: Research Designs: Quantitative, Qualitative, Neuropsychological, and Biological Volume 3: Data Analysis and Research Publication

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Edition: 2nd
Format: Display
Pub. Date: 2023-07-18
Publisher(s): American Psychological Association
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With significant new and updated content across dozens of chapters, the second edition of the APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology presents the most exhaustive treatment available of the techniques psychologists and others have developed to help them pursue a shared understanding of why humans think, feel, and behave the way they do.
The initial chapters in this indispensable three-volume handbook address broad, crosscutting issues faced by researchers: the philosophical, ethical, and societal underpinnings of psychological research. 
Next, chapters detail the research planning process, describe the range of measurement techniques that psychologists most often use to collect data, consider how to determine the best measurement techniques for a particular purpose, and examine ways to assess the trustworthiness of measures.
Additional chapters cover various aspects of quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological research designs, presenting an array of options and their nuanced distinctions. Chapters on techniques for data analysis follow, and important issues in writing up research to share with the community of psychologists are discussed in the handbook’s concluding chapters.
Among the newly written chapters in the second edition, the handbook’s stellar roster of authors cover literature searching, workflow and reproducibility, research funding, neuroimaging, various facets of a wide range of research designs and data analysis methods, and updated information on the publication process, including research data management and sharing, questionable practices in statistical analysis, and ethical issues in manuscript preparation and authorship.

Author Biography

Harris Cooper, PhD, is the Hugo L. Blomquist Professor, Emeritus, in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University. His research interests concern research synthesis and research methodology, and he also studies the application of social and developmental psychology to education policy. His book Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis: A Step-by-Step Approach (2017) is in its fifth edition. He is the coeditor of the Handbook of Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis (3rd ed. 2019). In 2007, Dr. Cooper was the recipient of the Frederick Mosteller Award for Contributions to Research Synthesis Methodology, and in 2008 he received the Ingram Olkin Award for Distinguished Lifetime Contribution to Research Synthesis from the Society for Research Synthesis Methodology. He served as the chair of the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University from 2009 to 2014, and from 2017 to 2018 he served as the dean of social science at Duke. Dr. Cooperchaired the first APA committee that developed guidelines for information about research that should be included in manuscripts submitted to APA journals. He currently serves as the editor of American Psychologist, the flagship journal of the American Psychological Association.
Marc N. Coutanche, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology and research scientist in the Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Coutanche directs a program of cognitive neuroscience research and develops and tests new computational techniques to identify and understand the neural information present within neuroimaging data. His work has been funded by the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, American Psychological Foundation, and other organizations, and he has published in a variety of journals. Dr. Coutanche received his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania, and conducted postdoctoral training at Yale University. He received a Howard Hughes Medical Institute International Student Research Fellowship and Ruth L. Kirschstein Postdoctoral National Research Service Award, and was named a 2019 Rising Star by the Association for Psychological Science. 
Linda M. McMullen, PhD, is professor emerita of psychology at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. Over her career, she has contributed to the development of qualitative inquiry in psychology through teaching, curriculum development, and pedagogical scholarship; original research; and service to the qualitative research community. Dr. McMullen introduced qualitative inquiry into both the graduate and undergraduate curriculum in her home department, taught courses at both levels for many years, and has published articles, coedited special issues, and written a book (Essentials of Discursive Psychology) that is part of the American Psychological Association’s series on qualitative methodologies, among other works. She has been engaged with building the Society for Qualitative Inquiry in Psychology (SQIP; a section of Division 5 of the APA) into a vibrant scholarly society since its earliest days, and took on many leadership roles while working as a university professor. Dr. McMullen’s contributions have been recognized by Division 5 of the APA, the Canadian Psychological Association, and the Saskatchewan Psychological Association.
Abigail Panter, PhD, is the senior associate dean for undergraduate education and a professor of psychology in the L. L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She is past president of the American Psychological Association’s Division 5, Quantitative and Qualitative Methods. As a quantitative psychologist, she develops instruments, research designs and data-analytic strategies for applied research questions in higher education, personality, and health. She serves as a program evaluator for UNC’s Chancellor’s Science Scholars Program, and was also principal investigator for The Finish Line Project, a $3 million grant from the U.S. Department of Education that systematically investigated new supports and academic initiatives, especially for first-generation college students. Her books include the APA Dictionary of Statistics and Research Methods (2014), the APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology (first edition; 2012), the Handbook of Ethics in Quantitative Methodology (2011), and the SAGE Handbook of Methods in Social Psychology (2004), among others.

David Rindskopf, PhD, is distinguished professor at the City University of New York Graduate Center, specializing in research methodology and statistics. His main interests are in Bayesian statistics, causal inference, categorical data analysis, meta-analysis, and latent variable models.  He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association and the American Educational Research Association, and is past president of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology and the New York Chapter of the American Statistical Association.

Kenneth J. Sher, PhD, is Chancellor’s Professor and Curators’ Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences, Emeritus, at the University of Missouri. He received his PhD in clinical psychology from Indiana University (1980) and his clinical internship training at Brown University (1981). His primary areas of research focus on etiological processes in the development of alcohol dependence, factors that affect the course of drinking and alcohol use disorders throughout adulthood, longitudinal research methodology, psychiatric comorbidity, and nosology. At the University of Missouri he directed the predoctoral and postdoctoral training program in alcohol studies, and his research has been continually funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism for more than 35 years. Dr. Sher’s research contributions have been recognized by professional societies including the Research Society on Alcoholism and the American Psychological Association, and throughout his career he has been heavily involved in service to professional societies and scholarly publications. 

Table of Contents

Volume 1. Foundations, Planning, Measures, and Psychometrics

Editorial Board
About the Editors
A Note from the Publisher
Introduction: Objectives of Psychological Research and Their Relations to Research Methods
Part I. Philosophical, Ethical, and Societal Underpinnings of Psychological Research
Section 1. Philosophical Issues for Research in Psychology

Chapter 1. Perspectives on the Epistemological Bases for Qualitative Research
Carla Willig
Chapter 2. Frameworks for Causal Inference in Psychological Science
Peter M. Steiner, William R. Shadish, and Kristynn J. Sullivan
Section 2. Ethical and Professional Considerations in Conducting Psychological Research
Chapter 3. Ethics in Psychological Research: Guidelines and Regulations
Adam L. Fried and Kate L. Jansen
Chapter 4. Ethics and Regulation of Research With Nonhuman Animals
Sangeeta Panicker, Chana K. Akins, and Beth Ann Rice
Section 3. Cultural and Societal Issues in Conducting Psychological Research
Chapter 5. Cross-Cultural Research Methods
David Masumoto and Fons J. R. van de Vijver
Chapter 6.Research With Populations that Experience Marginalization
George P. Knight, Rebecca M. B. White, Stefanie Martinez-Fuentes, Mark W. Roosa, and Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor
Part II. Planning Research
Chapter 7. Developing Testable and Important Research Questions
Frederick T. L. Leong, Neal Schmitt, and Brent J. Lyons
Chapter 8. Searching With a Purpose: How to Use Literature Searching to Support Your Research
Diana Ramirez and Margaret J. Foster
Chapter 9. Psychological Measurement: Scaling and Analysis
Heather Hayes and Susan E. Embretson
Chapter 10. Sample Size Planning
Ken Kelley, Samantha F. Anderson, and Scott E. Maxwell
Chapter 11. Workflow and Reproducibility
Oliver Kirchkamp
Chapter 12. Obtaining and Evaluating Research Funding
Jonathan S. Comer and Amanda L. Sanchez
Part III. Measurement Methods
Section 1. Behavior Observation

Chapter 13. Behavioral Observation
Roger Bakeman and Vicenç Quera
Section 2. Self-Report
Chapter 14. Question Order Effects
Lisa Lee, Parvati Krishnamurty, and Struther Van Horn
Chapter 15. Interviews and Interviewing Techniques
Anna Madill
Chapter 16. Using Intensive Longitudinal Methods in Psychological Research
Masumi Iida, Patrick E. Shrout, Jean-Philippe Laurenceau, and Niall Bolger
Chapter 17. Automated Analyses of Natural Language in Psychological Research
Laura K. Allen, Arthur C. Graesser, and Danielle S. McNamara
Section 3. Psychological Tests
Chapter 18. Objective Tests as Instruments of Psychological Theory and Research
David Watson
Chapter 19. Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Testing
Kurt F. Geisinger
Chapter 20. The Current Status of "Projective" "Tests"
Robert E. McGrath, Alec Twibell, and Elizabeth J. Carroll
Chapter 21. Brief Instruments and Short Forms
Emily A. Atkinson, Carolyn M. Pearson Carter, Jessica L. Combs Rohr, and Gregory T. Smith
Section 4. Chronometric and Psychophysical Measures
Chapter 22. Eye Movements, Pupillometry, and Cognitive Processes
Simon P. Liversedge, Sara V. Milledge, and Hazel I. Blythe
Chapter 23. Response Times
Roger Ratcliff
Chapter 24. Psychophysics: Concepts, Methods, and Frontiers
Allie C. Hexley, Takuma Morimoto, and Manuel Spitschan
Section 5. Measures in Psychophysiology
Chapter 25. The Perimetric Physiological Measurement of Psychological Constructs
Louis G. Tassinary, Ursula Hess, Luis M. Carcoba, and Joseph M. Orr
Chapter 26. Salivary Hormone Assays
Linda Becker, Nicholas Rohleder, and Oliver C. Schultheiss
Section 6. Measures in Neuroscience
Chapter 27. Electro- and Magnetoencephalographic Methods in Psychology
Eddie Harmon-Jones, David M. Amodio, Philip A. Gable, and Suzanne Dikker
Chapter 28. Event-Related Potentials
Steven J. Luck
Chapter 29. Functional Neuroimaging
Megan T. deBettencourt, Wilma A. Bainbridge, Monica D. Rosenberg
Chapter 30. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Cerebral Cortex
Dennis J. L. G. Schutter
Chapter 31. Combined Neuroimaging Methods
Marius Moisa and Christian C. Ruff
Chapter 32. Neuroimaging Analysis Methods
Yanyu Xiong and Sharlene D. Newman
Part IV. Psychometrics
Chapter 33. Reliability
Sean P. Lane, Elizabeth N. Aslinger, and Patrick E. Shrout
Chapter 34. Generalizability Theory
Xiaohong Gao and Deborah J. Harris
Chapter 35. Construct Validity
Kevin J. Grimm and Keith F. Widaman
Chapter 36. Item-Level Factor
Nisha C. Gottfredson, Brian D. Stucky, and A. T. Panter
Chapter 37. Item Response Theory
Steven P. Reise and Tyler M. Moore
Chapter 38. Measuring Test Performance With Signal Detection Theory Techniques
Teresa A. Treat and Richard J. Viken

Volume 2. Research Designs: Quantitative, Qualitative, Neuropsychological, and Biological

Editorial Board
Part I. Qualitative Research Methods
Section 1. Overview of Qualitative Methods

Chapter 1. Developments in Qualitative Inquiry
Sarah Riley and Andrea LaMarre
Chapter 2. Metasynthesis of Qualitative Research
Sally Thorne
Section 2. Thematic Approaches
Chapter 3. Grounded Theory and Psychological Research
Robert Thornberg, Elaine Keane, and Malgorzata Wójcik
Chapter 4. Thematic Analysis
Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke
Chapter 5. Phenomenological Methodology, Methods, and Procedures for Research in Psychology
Frederick J. Wertz
Section 3. Narrative and Language-Based Approaches
Chapter 6. Narrative Analysis
Javier Monforte and Brett Smith
Chapter 7. Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis
Paul ten Have
Chapter 8. Discourse Analysis and Discursive Psychology
Chris McVittie and Andy McKinlay
Section 4. Multilayered Approaches
Chapter 9. Ethnography in Psychological Research
Elizabeth Fein and Jonathan Yahalom
Chapter 10. Visual Research in Psychology
Paula Reavey, Jon Prosser, and Steven D. Brown
Chapter 11. Researching the Temporal
Karen Henwood and Fiona Shirani
Part II. Working Across Epistemologies, Methodologies, and Methods
Chapter 12. Mixed Methods Research in Psychology
Timothy C. Guetterman and Analay Perez
Chapter 13. The "Cases Within Trials" (CWT) Method: An Example of a Mixed-Methods Research Design
Daniel B. Fishman
Chapter 14. Researching With American Indian and Alaska Native Communities: Pursuing Partnerships for Psychological Inquiry in Service to Indigenous Futurity
Joseph P. Gone
Chapter 15. Participatory Action Research as Movement Toward Radical Relationality, Epistemic Justice, and Transformative Intervention: A Multivocal Reflection
Urmitapa Dutta, Jesica Siham Fernández, Anne Galletta, and Regina Day Langhout
Part III. Sampling Across People and Time
Chapter 16. Introduction to Survey Sampling
Roger Tourangeau and Ting Yan
Chapter 17. Epidemiology
Rumi Kato Price and Heidi H. Tastet
Chapter 18. Collecting Longitudinal Data: Present Issues and Future Challenges
Simran K. Johal, Rohit Batra, and Emilio Ferrer
Chapter 19. Using the Internet to Collect Data
Ulf-Dietrich Reips
Part IV. Building and Testing Models
Chapter 20. Statistical Mediation Analysis
David P. MacKinnon, Jeewon Cheong, Angela G. Pirlott, and Heather L. Smyth
Chapter 21. Structural Equation Modeling with Latent Variables
Rick H. Hoyle and Nisha C. Gottfredson
Chapter 22. Mathematical Psychology
Parker Smith, Yanjun Liu, James T. Townsend, and Trisha Van Zandt
Chapter 23. Computational Modeling
Adele Diederich
Chapter 24. Fundamentals of Bootstrapping and Monte Carlo Methods
William Howard Beasley, Patrick O'Keefe, and Joseph Lee Rodgers
Chapter 25. Designing Simulation Studies
Xitao Fan
Chapter 26. Bayesian Modeling for Psychologists: An Applied Approach
Fred M. Feinberg and Richard Gonzalez
Part V. Designs Involving Experimental Manipulations
Section 1. Designs With Different Participant Assignment Mechanisms
Chapter 27. Randomized Designs in Psychological Research
Larry Christensen, Lisa A. Turner, and R. Burke Johnson
Chapter 28. Nonequivalent Comparison Group Designs
Henry May and Zachary K. Collier
Chapter 29. Regression Discontinuity Designs
Charles S. Reichardt and Gary T. Henry
Section 2. Experimental Manipulations in Applied Settings
Chapter 30. Treatment Validity for Intervention Studies
Dianne L. Chambless and Steven D. Hollon
Chapter 31. Translational Research
Michael T. Bardo, Christopher Cappelli, and Mary Ann Pentz
Chapter 32. Program Evaluation: Outcomes and Costs of Putting Psychology to Work
Brian T. Yates
Part VI. Quantitative Research Designs Involving Single Participants or Units
Chapter 33. Single-Case Experimental Design
John M. Ferron, Megan Kirby, and Lodi Lipien
Chapter 34. Time Series Designs
Bradley J. Bartos, Richard McCleary, and David McDowall
Part VII. Designs in Neuropsychology and Biological Psychology
Section 1. Neuropsychology

Chapter 35. Case Studies in Neuropsychology
Randi C. Martin, Simon Fischer-Baum, and Corinne M. Pettigrew
Chapter 36. Group Studies in Experimental Neuropsychology
Avinash R Vaidya, Maia Pujara, and Lesley K. Fellows
Section 2. Genetic Methods in Psychology
Chapter 37. Genetic Methods in Psychology
Terrell A. Hicks, Daniel Bustamante, Karestan C. Koenen, Nicole R. Nugent, and Ananda B. Amstadter
Chapter 38. Human Genetic Epidemiology
Floris Huider, Lannie Ligthart, Yuri Milaneschi, Brenda W. J. H. Penninx, and Dorret I. Boomsma

Volume 3. Data Analysis and Research Publication
Editorial Board
Part I. Quantitative Data Analysis
Section 1. Preparing Data for Analysis
Chapter 1. Methods for Dealing With Bad Data and Inadequate Models: Distributions, Linear Models, and Beyond
Rand R. Wilcox and Guillaume A. Rousselet
Chapter 2. Maximum Likelihood and Multiple Imputation Missing Data Handling: How They Work, and How to Make Them Work in Practice
Timothy Hayes and Craig K. Enders
Chapter 3. Exploratory Data Analysis
Paul F. Velleman and David C. Hoaglin
Section 2. Describing Data
Chapter 4. Graphic Displays of Data
Leland Wilkinson
Chapter 5. Estimating and Visualizing Interactions in Moderated Multiple Regression
Connor J. McCabe and Kevin M. King
Chapter 6. Effect Size Estimation
Michael Borenstein
Chapter 7. Measures of Clinically Significant Change
Russell J. Bailey, Benjamin M. Ogles, and Michael J. Lambert
Section 3. Methods With Single Outcomes
Chapter 8. Analysis of Variance and the General Linear Model
James Jaccard and Ai Bo
Chapter 9. Generalized Linear Models
David Rindskopf
Chapter 10. Multilevel Modeling for Psychologists
John B. Nezlek
Section 4. Methods With Outcomes Measured Over Time
Chapter 11. Longitudinal Data Analysis
Andrew K. Littlefield
Chapter 12. Event History Analysis
Fetene B. Tekle and Jeroen K. Vermunt
Chapter 13. Latent State-Trait Models
Rolf Steyer, Christian Geiser, and Christiane Loß​nitzer
Chapter 14. Latent Variable Modeling of Continuous Growth
David A. Cole, Jeffrey A. Ciesla, and Qimin Liu
Chapter 15. Dynamical Systems and Differential Equation Models of Change
Steven M. Boker and Robert G. Moulder
Chapter 16. A Multivariate Growth Curve Model for Three-Level Data
Patrick J. Curran, Chris L. Strauss, Ethan M. McCormick, and James S. McGinley
Section 5. Multivariate Methods
Chapter 17. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Keith F. Widaman and Jonathan Lee Helm
Chapter 18. Latent Class and Latent Profile Models
Brian P. Flaherty, Liying Wang, and Cara J. Kiff
Chapter 19. Decision Trees and Ensemble Methods in the Behavioral Sciences
Kevin J. Grimm, Ross Jacobucci, and John J. McArdle
Section 6. Dyadic and Social Network Data
Chapter 20. Using the Social Relations Model to Understand Interpersonal Perception and Behavior
P. Niels Christensen, Deborah A. Kashy, and Katelin E. Leahy
Chapter 21. Dyadic Data Analysis
Richard Gonzalez and Dale Griffin
Section 7. Using Data Collected by Others
Chapter 22. The Data of Others: New and Old Faces of Archival Research
Sophie Pychlau and David T. Wagner
Chapter 23. Social Network Analysis in Psychology: Recent Breakthroughs in Methods and Theories
Wei Wang, Tobias Stark, James D. Westaby, Adam K. Parr, and Daniel A. Newman
Chapter 24. Meta-Analysis
Jeffrey C. Valentine, Therese D. Pigott, and Joseph Morris
Part II. Publishing and the Publication Process
Chapter 25. Research Data Management and Sharing
Katherine G. Akers and John A. Borghi
Chapter 26. Questionable Practices in Statistical Analysis
Rex B. Kline
Chapter 27. Ethical Issues in Manuscript Preparation and Authorship
Jennifer Crocker

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