American Horizons US History in a Global Context, Volume One: To 1877

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Edition: 4th
Format: Paperback
Pub. Date: 2020-10-09
Publisher(s): Oxford University Press
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In American Horizons: U.S. History in a Global Context, Fourth Edition, the authors use the frequent movement of people, goods, and ideas into, out of, and within America's borders as a framework. This unique approach provides a fully integrated global perspective that seamlessly contextualizes American events within the wider world. Presented in two volumes for maximum flexibility--and supplemented by two sourcebooks of primary documents--American Horizons illustrates the relevance of U.S. history to students by centering on the matrix of issues that dominate their lives.

Visit for a wealth of digital resources for students and instructors, including an enhanced eBook with embedded learning tools and the Oxford Insight Study Guide, which delivers custom-built adaptive practice sessions based on students' performance.

Author Biography

Michael Schaller is Regents Professor of History Emeritus at the University of Arizona, where he has taught since 1974. His areas of specialization include U.S. international and East Asian relations and the resurgence of conservatism in late 20th-century America.

Janette Thomas Greenwood is Professor of History at Clark University. She specializes in African American history and history of the U.S. South.

Andrew Kirk is Professor and Chair of History at University of Nevada, Las Vegas. He specializes in the history of the U.S. West and environmental history.

Sarah J. Purcell is L.F. Parker Professor of History at Grinnell College. She specializes in the early national period, antebellum United States, popular culture, politics, gender, and military history.

Christina Snyder is the McCabe Greer Professor of History at The Pennsylvania State University. She researches colonialism, race, and slavery, with a focus on Native North America from the pre-contact era through the nineteenth century.

Table of Contents

About the Authors

Chapter 1. The Origins of the Atlantic World, Ancient Times to 1565
North America to 1500
The First Americans
Hunters, Gatherers, and Farmers
Trade and the Rise of Native Cities
North America on the Eve of Colonization
Early Colonialism, 1000-1513
European Expansion Across the Atlantic
Iberians, Africans, and the Creation of an Eastern Atlantic World
Columbus Invades the Caribbean
Violence, Disease, and Cultural Exchange
The Invasion of North America, 1513-1565
The Fall of Mexica
Early Encounters
GLOBAL PASSAGES: The Doctrine of Discovery
Religious Reformation and European Rivalries
The Founding of Florida

Chapter 2. Colonists on the Margins, 1565-1640
Imperial Inroads and the Expansion of Trade, 1565-1607
Spain Stakes Claim to Florida
New Spain into the Southwest
England Enters Eastern North America
The Fur Trade in the Northeast
European Islands in a Native American Ocean, 1607-1625
Tsenacomoco and Virginia
New France, New Netherland, New Indian Northeast
Pilgrims and Northeastern Natives
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Angela's Ordeal, the Atlantic Slave Trade, and the Creation of African North American Cultures
Seeking God, Seizing Land, Reaping Conflict, 1625 to c. 1640
Missionaries and Indians in New France and New Mexico
Migration and the Expansion of Dutch and English North America
Dissent in the"City upon a Hill"
Early Wars Between Colonists and Indians
Chapter 3. Forging Tighter Bonds, 1640-1700
Uncivil Wars, 1640-1660
Smallpox and War Plague the Great Lakes
English Civil Wars and the Remaking of English America
Planters and Slaves of the Caribbean
Missionaries and Indians in the Southeast and Southwest
New Imperial Orders, 1660-1680
The English Colonial Empire and the Conquest of New Netherland
Quebec and the Expansion of French America
Servitude and Slavery in the Chesapeake
The Creation of South Carolina
Metacom and the Battle for New England
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Global Catholicism, Indian Christianity, and Catherine/Kateri Tekakwitha
Victorious Pueblos, a New Mid-Atlantic, and "Glorious" Revolutions, 1680 to the 1690s
The Pueblo War for Independence
Royal Charters for New Jersey and Pennsylvania
English North America's "Glorious" Revolutions
North America's Hundred Years' War Begins

Chapter 4. Accelerating the Pace of Change, c. 1690-1730
Trade and Power
An Economic Revolution on the Plains
Accommodation in Tejas and the Southwest
Native Nations, the French, and the Making of Louisiana
Slaving Raids, Expansion, and War in the Carolinas
Haudenosaunee Hegemony and Concessions in the Northeast
Migration, Religion, and Empires
The Africanization of North America
The "Naturalization" of Slavery and Racism
European Immigrants and Imperial Expansion
Pietism and Atlantic Protestantism
Imperial Authority and Colonial Resistance
GLOBAL PASSAGES: New York, Madagascar, and Indian Ocean Piracy
Laying Foundations in British North America
An Industrious Revolution
Improved Communications

Chapter 5. Battling for Souls, Minds, and the Heart of North America, 1730-1763
Natives and Newcomers
The Growth of Slavery
The Impact of Irish and German Immigration
Slave Resistance and the Creation of Georgia
Settler Colonialism and Eastern Indians
Minds, Souls, and Wallets
North Americans Engage the Enlightenment
Becoming a Consumer Society
Revivals and the Rise of Evangelical Christianity
African, African American, and Indian Awakenings
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Freedom and Evangelism in the Atlantic World
North America and the French and Indian War, 1754-1763
The Struggle for the Ohio Valley
The War in North America and in Europe
Britain Claims Eastern North America

Chapter 6. Empire and Resistance, 1763-1776
English and Spanish Imperial Reform
Transatlantic Trade as an Engine of Conflict
Grenville's Program
Pontiac's Rebellion
Bourbon Reforms
The Enlightenment and Colonial Identity
Stamp Act and Resistance
Parliamentary Action
Protest and Repeal
Empire and Authority
Consumer Resistance
Townshend Duties
The Non-Importation Movement
Men and Women: Tea and Politics
The Boston Massacre
Resistance Becomes Revolution
Boston Tea Party and Coercive Acts
Empire, Control, and the Language of Slavery
War Begins
Lord Dunmore's Proclamation
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Independence: Transatlantic Roots, Global Influence
Declaring Independence
The World's First Declaration of Independence
Spanish Imperial Consolidation
Ideology and Resistance
Taking Stock of Empire

Chapter 7. A Revolutionary Nation, 1776-1789
The Revolution Takes Root
Ideology and Transatlantic Politics
Trying Times: War Continues
Alliance with France
The Structure of Authority
State Governments
Articles of Confederation
Military Organization
Diplomacy and International Finance
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Phillis Wheatley, Revolutionary Transatlantic Poet
Securing Independence
War at Sea
War in the South
Loyalists: Resistance and Migration
Indian Warfare
African Americans at War
Peace and Shifting Empires
Restructuring Political and Social Authority
Power in the States
Economic Change
Women and Revolution
Racial Ideology and Questioning Slavery
A Federal Nation
Debt and Discontent
Constitutional Convention

Chapter 8. A New Nation Facing a Revolutionary World, 1789-1815
The United States in the Age of the French Revolution
The New Nation and the New Revolution
The Rise of Party Tensions
Neutrality and Jay's Treaty
The Popular Politics of Rebellion
Indian Warfare and European Power
Party Conflict Intensifies
Adams in Power
Quasi-War with France
Alien and Sedition Acts
Slave Rebellions: Saint-Domingue and Virginia
The "Revolution" of 1800 and the Revolution of 1804
Jefferson Elected
Democracy: Limits and Conflicts
Haitian Revolution
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Revolutionary Migrations
The Louisiana Purchase
Trade, Conflict, Warfare
Transatlantic and Caribbean Trade
Mediterranean Trade: Barbary Wars
Western Discontents
European Wars and Commercial Sanctions
The War of 1812
War Declared
U.S. Offensives in Canada
Tecumseh and Pan-Indian Resistance
Naval War
British Offensive
The War Ends

Chapter 9. American Peoples on the Move, 1789-1824
Exploration and Encounter
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Zebulon Pike
Plains Indian Peoples
Astor and the Fur Trade
Asian Trade
Shifting Borders
Jeffersonian Agrarianism
Northwest, Southwest, and New States
The Missouri Compromise
African American Migration and Colonization
Spanish Expansion in California
Social and Cultural Shifts
Native Americans and Civilization Policy
Gender in Early Republican Society
Literature and Popular Culture
African American Culture: Slaves and Free People
Roots of the Second Great Awakening
Financial Expansion
Banks and Panics
Corporations and the Supreme Court
Politics and Hemispheric Change
First Seminole War
Transcontinental (Adams-On?s) Treaty
The United States and Latin American Revolutions
The Monroe Doctrine
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Francisco de Miranda, the United States, and Latin American Independence

Chapter 10. Market Revolutions and the Rise of Democracy, 1789-1832
The Market System
Internal and External Markets
Technology: Domestic Invention and Global Appropriation
Water and Steam Power
Transportation and Communication
Markets and Social Relationships
Manufacturing and the Factory System
Slavery and Markets
Urban and Rural Life
Democracy and the Public Sphere
Voting and Politics
Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson, "The People," and the Election of 1828
Jackson and the Veto
Economic Opportunity and Territorial Expansion
Texas Colonization
Santa Fe Trail
The Black Hawk War
Expanding Markets
The Legal Structures of Capitalism
The Erie Canal
The Industrial Revolution

Chapter 11
New Boundaries, New Roles, 1820-1856
An Expanding Nation
The Trail of Tears

? 364
Settler Colonialism in the West

? 367
Latin American Filibustering and the Texas Independence Movement

? 370
Pacific Explorations

? 371
The New Challenge of Labor

? 373
White Workers, Unions, and Class Consciousness

? 373
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Middlemen Abroad

? 374
Foreign-Born Workers

? 377
The New Middle Class

? 379
The Expansion of Slavery and Slaves as Workers

? 380
Men and Women in Antebellum America

? 383
Gender and Economic Change

? 383
Ladies, Women, and Working Girls

? 385
Masculinity on the Trail, in the Cities, and on the Farm

? 386
Freedom for Some

? 388
The Nature of Democracy in the Atlantic World

? 389
The Second Party System

? 390
Democracy in the South

? 392
Conflicts over Slavery

? 394
Chapter 12
Religion and Reform, 1820-1850

? 401
The Second Great Awakening

? 402
Spreading the Word

? 402
Building a Christian Nation

? 405
Interpreting the Message

? 407
Northern Reform

? 408
The Temperance Crusade

? 409
The Rising Power of American Abolition

? 410
Women's Rights

? 413
Love and Sex in the Age of Reform

? 416
Southern Reform

? 417
Sin, Salvation, and Honor

? 418
Pro-Slavery Reform

? 419
Nat Turner and Afro-Christianity

? 419
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Celebrating the Black Atlantic

? 422
Southern Antislavery Reformers

? 422
Challenges to the Spirit of the Age

? 424
Emerson, Thoreau, and the American Soul

? 424
The First Mass Culture

? 426
The American Renaissance

? 427
A New Politics

? 429
Chapter 13
A House Dividing, 1844-1860

? 437
The Expansion of America

? 439
The American Invasion and Conquest of Mexico

? 439
The Emergence of the New American West

? 441
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Making Boundaries

? 442
Conestogas, Comanches, and Californios

? 443
Contested Citizenship

? 446
The Patterns of Migration

? 446
New Immigrants and the Invention of Americanism

? 448
The Know-Nothing Movement

? 450
Slavery and Antebellum Life

? 451
The Paradox of Slavery and Modernity

? 451
The West Indies, Brazil, and the Future of Slavery

? 453
Inside the Quarter

? 453
The Creation of African America

? 455
The Rise of the Republicans

? 456
Free Soil and Free Labor

? 457
The Politics of Slave Catching

? 458
Western Expansion and the Kansas-Nebraska Act

? 460
Rising Sectionalism

? 461
Chapter 14
The Civil War, 1860-1865

? 469
Secession, 1860-1861

? 470
The Secession of the Lower South

? 470
Fort Sumter and the Secession of the Upper South

? 472
Mobilization for War

? 474
From the Ballot to the Bullet

? 477
War in Earnest, 1862-1863

? 478
The North Advances

? 478
Stalemate in the East

? 480
Southern and Northern Home Fronts

? 482
The Struggle for European Support

? 483
GLOBAL PASSAGES: Civil Wars Around the World

? 484
A New Birth of Freedom

? 486
Slaves Take Flight

? 486
From Confiscation to Emancipation

? 488
Government Centralization in Wartime

? 489
The Hard War, 1863-1864

? 491
Invasion and Occupation

? 492
Black Soldiers, Black Flags

? 492
The Campaigns of Grant and Sherman

? 494
Victory and Defeat, 1865

? 495
American Nationalism, Southern Nationalism

? 496
The New Challenge of Race

? 497
Environmental and Economic Scars of War

? 498
The Last Best Hope of Man?

? 499
Chapter 15
Reconstructing America, 1865-1877

? 505
The Year of Jubilee, 1865

? 506
African American Families

? 507
Southern Whites and the Problem of Defeat

? 509
Emancipation in Comparative Perspective

? 511
Shaping Reconstruction, 1865-1868

? 512
Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction

? 512
The Fight over Reconstruction

? 513
The Civil War Amendments and American Citizenship

? 515
GLOBAL PASSAGES: America the Diverse

? 518
Congressional Reconstruction

? 518
Reconstruction in the South, 1866-1876

? 521
African American Life in the Postwar South

? 521
Republican Governments in the Postwar South

? 525
Cotton, Merchants, and the Lien

? 526
The End of Reconstruction, 1877

? 528
The Ku Klux Klan and Reconstruction Violence

? 529
Northern Weariness and Northern Conservatism

? 531
Legacies of Reconstruction

? 535
Appendix A: Historical Documents

? A-1
Appendix B: Historical Facts and Data

? B-1

? G-1

? C-1

? I-1

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